Depositaja: Wallet deposit service using Event-driven architecture

In this project, I build a fictitious wallet deposit service. Our main goal is to explore implementation of event-driven architecture using Kafka as the message broker.Several assumptions were made to pertain simplicity of the project, such as no authentication middleware, users cannot withdraw, and other out-of-topic features.

The service offers only two endpoints:

  1. localhost:8080/deposit HTTP POST endpoint for user to deposit money. This endpoint takes JSON data containing the wallet_id, and the amount of the deposit and emits it to Kafka.
  2. localhost:8080/check/{wallet_id} HTTP GET endpoint to get the balance of the wallet, also a flag whether the wallet has ever done one or more deposits with amounts more than 10,000 within a single 2-minute window (rolling-period). The wallet_id in the URLs refers to the wallet id.

In building this, we will follow the following architecture requirements:

  1. Use Goka, a stream processing library for Apache Kafka written in Go.
  2. Use protobuf when encoding/decoding payload to/from Kafka broker.
  3. Use Goka’s Local storage mechanism.

To run the project, you can follow this.

Basic components and features

Goka provides three components to build systems: emitters, processors, and views.The following figure depicts the design used in this project, using those three components together with Kafka and the endpoints.

Architecture

Deposit endpoint

The main message type we will be dealing with is the depositRequest type:

type depositRequest struct {WalletID string  `json:"wallet_id"`Amount   float64 `json:"amount"`}

If Dustin wants to deposit an amount of money, he would send a request to the deposit endpoint with the wallet id and the amount of the money.For example:

curl -X POST                                                   \    -d '{"wallet_id": "0x1a3565a67721b6ab46fB11d5CF33A72D871aEbA3", "amount": "2000"}' \    http://localhost:8080/deposit

The deposit handler parses request message type.Afterwards, it emits the message into the DepositStream topic using the receiver wallet_id as key:

func deposit(emitter *goka.Emitter, stream goka.Stream) func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {return func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {...}}

We then configure the emitter to emit into the DepositStream topic by default and to use DepositCodec to encode the message.This is how the emitter is created:

emitter, err := goka.NewEmitter(brokers, stream, new(depositaja.DepositCodec))router.HandleFunc("/deposit", send(emitter)).Methods("POST")

Note I am ignoring errors in this document for the sake of readability.The complete example in the repository handles them, though.

Collecting messages with Context.Value() and Context.SetValue()

Define the balance table to contain the deposit history stated in each wallet.The collector processor keeps the table up-to-date by consuming DepositStream.Define the collector callback as follows:

// collect callback is called for every message from DepositStream.// ctx allows access to collector table and msg is the input message.func collect(ctx goka.Context, msg interface{}) {ml := &pb.DepositHistory{}if v := ctx.Value(); v != nil {ml = v.(*pb.DepositHistory)}m := msg.(*pb.Deposit)ml.WalletId = m.WalletIdml.Deposits = append(ml.Deposits, m)ctx.SetValue(ml)}

The ctx is scoped with the key of the input message — remember we used the receiver as key in the emitter.With ctx.Value() we fetch the table value for that key.In this processor, the value is a slice of messages.We then append the received message and cap the length of the slice with the constant maxAmount, which is 10000.Finally, we store the value back in the table with ctx.SetValue().

To create the processor, we need to define the group input stream and table’s persistence:

g := goka.DefineGroup(goka.Group("balance"),// the group table ("balance-table") persists deposit listsgoka.Persist(new(depositaja.DepositListCodec)),// input stream is DepositStream with DepositListCodec and collect callbackgoka.Input(depositaja.DepositStream, new(depositaja.DepositCodec), collect),)p, _ := goka.NewProcessor(brokers, g)

Check endpoint

When Dustin wants to check his wallet balance, he requests that from the check endpoint.For example:

$ curl localhost:8080/0x1a3565a67721b6ab46fB11d5CF33A72D871aEbA3/feed{"wallet_id": "0x1a3565a67721b6ab46fB11d5CF33A72D871aEbA3","balance": 2000,"above_threshold": false}

The handler employs a view on collector.Table to retrieve the messages for Dustin.It gets the wallet_id from the URL and tries to get the value from the view.If no value is available, the user has received no messages yet.Otherwise, the handler loops over the messages, calculate the balance, check if the wallet deposit is above the threshold, and formats the output.

func check(view *goka.View, flaggerView *goka.View) func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {return func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {...}}

When creating the view, it is configured to watch the collector.Table and use depositaja.DepositListCodec to decode table values.

view, _ := goka.NewView(brokers,collector.Table,new(depositaja.DepositListCodec),)router.HandleFunc("/check/{wallet_id}", feed(view)).Methods("GET")

DepositListCodec simply encodes and decodes the message of DepositList into and from protocol buffer data.

Flagging wallets

We would need to flag wallets that have ever done one or more deposits with amounts more than 10,000 within a single 2-minute window (rolling-period).

For that, create a flagger processor, which keeps a table of wallets that have been flagged.The flagger processor consumes from flagger.Stream and stores a FlagValue in the flagger.Table:

func flag(ctx goka.Context, msg interface{}) {...}

To add or remove a wallet manually from the flagger table, we can use the command line tool cmd/flag-wallet:

go run cmd/flag-wallet/main.go -wallet 0x1a3565a67721b6ab46fB11d5CF33A72D871aEbA3 # use -remove to remove the flag

Automatic above-threshold detection

In this project, we give a flag if the wallet has ever done one or more deposits with amounts more than 10,000 within a single 2-minute window (rolling-period).So, if we can detect wallets that fulfill that property, we can flag them.

We want to build a detector processor that counts total amount of deposits within a single 2-minute window (rolling-period) and issues a FlagEvent if the amount exceeds a threshold.The detector table should keep the following value for each user.

type Counter struct {state         protoimpl.MessageStatesizeCache     protoimpl.SizeCacheunknownFields protoimpl.UnknownFieldsRollingPeriodStartUnix int64   `protobuf:"varint,1,opt,name=rolling_period_start_unix,json=rollingPeriodStartUnix,proto3" json:"rolling_period_start_unix,omitempty"`Received               float64 `protobuf:"fixed64,2,opt,name=received,proto3" json:"received,omitempty"`}

Whenever update happens in the table value, it should check whether the wallet gets a flag.If the amount of deposit sent is more than maxAmount within a single 2-minute window (rolling-period), we add a flag the wallet and issue a FlagEvent.

func detectSpammer(ctx goka.Context, c *pb.Counter) bool {return c.Received >= maxAmount && c.RollingPeriodStartUnix != 0}

Counting deposit amounts

Now, we defined an approach to detect if a wallet is above threshold, but we have to keep the values in the group table updated.We define the group graph in parts.Here is the callback for DepositStream:

input := goka.Input(depositaja.DepositStream, new(depositaja.DepositCodec), func(ctx goka.Context, msg interface{}) {...}func getValue(ctx goka.Context) *pb.Counter {if v := ctx.Value(); v != nil {return v.(*pb.Counter)}return &pb.Counter{}}

For every message received from DepositStream, we first get the value for the key or create a new Counter protocol buffer object.DepositStream has the sender as key, so we add amount c.Amount and store back in the group table with ctx.SetValue().Next, we call detectSpammer(ctx, c), which will check whether sent rate is higher than a threshold.

Next, we check whether the wallet goes above the threshold with the following function.

Group graph

Finally, we define the complete group as follows:

g := goka.DefineGroup(goka.Group("threshold"),input,goka.Output(flagger.Stream, new(flagger.FlagEventCodec)),goka.Persist(new(CounterCodec)),)p, _ := goka.NewProcessor(brokers, g)

Recap

At this point, let’s make a short recap. So far we have created:

Running the project

In this project, we can put the endpoint handlers and, consequently, emitter and view in the same Go program.In another Go program, we start the collector processor. This will allows us to start, stop, and scale them independently.

Before starting any Go program, run make start to start Docker containers for ZooKeeper and Kafka.

Make sure you create the required Kafka topics.

make dev # to start endpoint handlers, emitter and view

In another terminal, start the processor:

make processor # start collector processor, detector processor, and flagger processor

or

go run cmd/processor/main.go -collector -flagger -detector

Internally the Go Program will start three Goka processors.Alternatively, you can run the processors individually by starting the program multiple times with the respective flags.

After you started both Go programs, you can use curl to check Dustin’s wallet:

curl localhost:8080/check/0x1a3565a67721b6ab46fB11d5CF33A72D871aEbA3

or open http://localhost:8080/check/0x1a3565a67721b6ab46fB11d5CF33A72D871aEbA3 in the browser.

You can deposit money to Dustin’s wallet using curl, for example,

curl -X POST                                                   \    -d '{"wallet_id": "0x1a3565a67721b6ab46fB11d5CF33A72D871aEbA3", "amount": "999999999"}' \    http://localhost:8080/deposit

GitHub

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