immudb

immudb is not a blockchain, immudb is the lightweight, high-speed immutable database with built-in cryptographic proof and verification. With immudb you can track changes in sensitive data in your transactional databases and then record those changes permanently in a tamperproof immudb database. This allows you to keep an indelible history of sensitive data, for example debit/credit card transactions.

Traditional DB transactions and logs are hard to scale and are mutable. So there is no way to know for sure if your data has been compromised.

As such, immudb provides unparalleled insights retroactively of changes to your sensitive data, even if your perimeter has been compromised. immudb guarantees immutability by using a Merkle tree structure internally.

immudb gives you the same cryptographic verification of the integrity of data written with SHA-256 like a classic blockchain without the cost and complexity associated with blockchains today.

immudb has 4 main benefits:

  1. immudb is immutable. You can add records, but never change or delete records.
  2. Data stored in immudb is cryptographically coherent and verifiable, like blockchains, just without all the complexity and at high speed.
  3. Anyone can get started with immudb in minutes. Whether you're using node.js, Java, Python, Go, .Net, or any other language. It's very easy to use and you can have your immutable database running in just a few minutes.
  4. Finally, immudb is Open Source. You can run it on premise, or in the cloud. It's completely free. immudb is governed by the Apache 2.0 License.

immudb can be ran on Linux, FreeBSD, Windows, and MacOS, along with
other systems derived from them, such as Kubernetes and Docker.

Designed for maximum performance

  • 4 CPU cores
  • Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E3-1275 v6 @ 3.80GHz
  • 64 GB memory
  • SSD

sequential write

Concurrency: 128
Iterations: 1000000
Elapsed t.: 3.06 sec
Throughput: 326626 tx/sec

batch write (async commit)

Concurrency: 16
Iterations: 1000000
Elapsed t.: 0.36 sec
Throughput: 2772181 tx/sec

As immudb is sometimes compared to Amazon QLDB, we compared the performance using a simple demo application to write data (without using any unfair optimization).

throughput_read

throughput_write

query_bm

exectime

Running immudb in Docker

  1. Pull immudb Docker Image from Docker Hub:
docker pull codenotary/immudb:latest
  1. Run immudb in a container:
docker run -it -d -p 3322:3322 -p 9497:9497 --name immudb codenotary/immudb:latest

immudb should be up and running, you can check the container logs:

docker logs immudb

Download immudb release binary

Download latest release binaries from here. Then just run immudb as follows:

# run immudb in the foreground
./immudb

# run immudb in the background
./immudb -d

To stop immudb în that case you need to find the process ps -ax | grep immudb and then kill -15 <pid>. Windows PowerShell would be Get-Process immudb* | Stop-Process.

Using non-default configuration:

immudb - the lightweight, high-speed immutable database for systems and applications.
Environment variables:
  IMMUDB_DIR=.
  IMMUDB_NETWORK=tcp
  IMMUDB_ADDRESS=0.0.0.0
  IMMUDB_PORT=3322
  IMMUDB_DBNAME=immudb
  IMMUDB_PIDFILE=
  IMMUDB_LOGFILE=
  IMMUDB_MTLS=false
  IMMUDB_AUTH=true
  IMMUDB_MAX_RECV_MSG_SIZE=4194304
  IMMUDB_DETACHED=false
  IMMUDB_CONSISTENCY_CHECK=true
  IMMUDB_PKEY=./tools/mtls/3_application/private/localhost.key.pem
  IMMUDB_CERTIFICATE=./tools/mtls/3_application/certs/localhost.cert.pem
  IMMUDB_CLIENTCAS=./tools/mtls/2_intermediate/certs/ca-chain.cert.pem
  IMMUDB_DEVMODE=true
  IMMUDB_MAINTENANCE=false
  IMMUDB_ADMIN_PASSWORD=immudb
  IMMUDB_SIGNING_KEY=
Usage:
  immudb [flags]
  immudb [command]

Available Commands:
  help        Help about any command
  version     Show the immudb version

Flags:
  -a, --address string          bind address (default "0.0.0.0")
      --admin-password string   admin password (default is 'immudb') as plain-text or base64 encoded (must be prefixed with 'enc:' if it is encoded) (default "immudb")
  -s, --auth                    enable auth
      --certificate string      server certificate file path (default "./tools/mtls/3_application/certs/localhost.cert.pem")
      --clientcas string        clients certificates list. Aka certificate authority (default "./tools/mtls/2_intermediate/certs/ca-chain.cert.pem")
      --config string           config file (default path are configs or $HOME. Default filename is immudb.toml)
      --consistency-check       enable consistency check monitor routine. To disable: --consistency-check=false (default true)
  -d, --detached                run immudb in background
      --devmode                 enable dev mode: accept remote connections without auth
      --dir string              data folder (default "./data")
      --max-recv-msg-size       max message size in bytes the server can receive
  -h, --help                    help for immudb
      --logfile string          log path with filename. E.g. /tmp/immudb/immudb.log
      --maintenance             override the authentication flag
  -m, --mtls                    enable mutual tls
      --no-histograms           disable collection of histogram metrics like query durations
      --pidfile string          pid path with filename. E.g. /var/run/immudb.pid
      --pkey string             server private key path (default "./tools/mtls/3_application/private/localhost.key.pem")
  -p, --port int                port number (default 3322)
      --signingKey string       signature private key path. If a valid one is provided, it enables the cryptographic signature of the root. E.g. "./../test/signer/ec3.key"


Use "immudb [command] --help" for more information about a command.

Build the binaries yourself

To build the binaries yourself, simply clone this repo and run

make all
Linux (by component)
GOOS=linux GOARCH=amd64 make immuclient-static immuadmin-static immudb-static
MacOS (by component)
GOOS=darwin GOARCH=amd64 make immuclient-static immuadmin-static immudb-static
Windows (by component)
GOOS=windows GOARCH=amd64 make immuclient-static immuadmin-static immudb-static
Freebsd (by component)
GOOS=freebsd GOARCH=amd64 make immuclient-static immuadmin-static immudb-static

If you want to build the container images yourself, simply clone this repo and run

docker build -t myown/immudb:latest -f Dockerfile .

And then run immudb as described when pulling official immudb Docker image.

Run immudb as a service

Service installation and management are supported on Linux, Windows, OSX and FreeBSD operating systems.

# install immudb service
sudo ./immudb service install

# uninstall immudb service
sudo ./immudb service uninstall

# check current immudb service status
sudo ./immudb service  status

# stop immudb service
sudo ./immudb service  stop

# start immudb service
sudo ./immudb service start

The linux service is using the following defaults:

File or configuration location
executable /usr/sbin/immudb
configuration file /etc/immudb/immudb.toml
all data files /var/lib/immudb
pid file /var/lib/immudb/immudb.pid
log file /var/log/immudb/immudb.log

The FreeBSD service is using the following defaults:

File or configuration location
executable /usr/sbin/immudb
configuration file /etc/immudb/immudb.toml
all data files /var/lib/immudb
pid file /var/lib/immudb/immudb.pid
log file /var/log/immudb/immudb.log

The Windows service is using the following defaults:

File or configuration location
executable Program Files\Immudb\immudb.exe
configuration file ProgramData\Immudb\config\immudb.toml
all data files ProgramData\Immudb\
pid file ProgramData\Immudb\config\immudb.pid
log file ProgramData\Immudb\config\immudb.log

Using immudb

Integrate immudb into your application using official SDKs already available for the following programming languages:

  1. Java immudb4j
  2. Golang immudb-go
  3. .net immudb4dotnet
  4. Python immudb-py
  5. Node.js immudb-node

We've developed a "language-agnostic SDK" which exposes a REST API for easy consumption by any application.
immugw may be convenient tool when SDKs are not available for the
programming language you're using, for experimentation, or just because you prefer your app only uses REST endpoints.

For a super quick start, please follow step by step guides for each SDK or pick a basic running sample from immudb-client-examples. Otherwise, you can use the immudb CLI tools described below.

CLI tools

  • immuclient is the CLI client for immudb. You can read, write data into immudb from the commandline using direct or interactive mode.
  • immuadmin is the admin CLI for immudb. You can manage immudb and get statistics as well as runtime information.

The latest release binaries can be found here

immuclient

Simply run ./immuclient on the same machine or ./immuclient -a <immudb-host>

CLI client for immudb - the lightweight, high-speed immutable database for systems and applications.
Environment variables:
  IMMUCLIENT_IMMUDB_ADDRESS=127.0.0.1
  IMMUCLIENT_IMMUDB_PORT=3322
  IMMUCLIENT_AUTH=true
  IMMUCLIENT_MTLS=false
  IMMUCLIENT_MAX_RECV_MSG_SIZE=4194304
  IMMUCLIENT_SERVERNAME=localhost
  IMMUCLIENT_PKEY=./tools/mtls/4_client/private/localhost.key.pem
  IMMUCLIENT_CERTIFICATE=./tools/mtls/4_client/certs/localhost.cert.pem
  IMMUCLIENT_CLIENTCAS=./tools/mtls/2_intermediate/certs/ca-chain.cert.pem

IMPORTANT: All get and safeget functions return base64-encoded keys and values, while all set and safeset functions expect base64-encoded inputs.

Usage:
  immuclient [flags]
  immuclient [command]

Available Commands:
  audit-mode        Starts immuclient as daemon in auditor mode. Run 'immuclient audit-mode help' or use -h flag for details
  check-consistency Check consistency for the specified index and hash
  count             Count keys having the specified value
  current           Return the last merkle tree root and index stored locally
  get               Get item having the specified key
  getByIndex        Return an element by index
  getRawBySafeIndex Return an element by index
  help              Help about any command
  history           Fetch history for the item having the specified key
  inclusion         Check if specified index is included in the current tree
  iscan             Iterate over all elements by insertion order
  it                Starts immuclient in CLI mode. Use 'help' or -h flag on the shell for details
  login             Login using the specified username and password
  logout
  rawsafeget        Get item having the specified key, without parsing structured values
  rawsafeset        Set a value for the item having the specified key, without setup structured values
  reference         Add new reference to an existing key
  safeget           Get and verify item having the specified key
  safereference     Add and verify new reference to an existing key
  safeset           Add and verify new item having the specified key and value
  safezadd          Add and verify new key with score to a new or existing sorted set
  scan              Iterate over keys having the specified prefix
  set               Add new item having the specified key and value
  status            Ping to check if server connection is alive
  use               Select database
  version           Show the immuclient version
  zadd              Add new key with score to a new or existing sorted set
  zscan             Iterate over a sorted set

Flags:
      --audit-password string    immudb password used to login during audit; can be plain-text or base64 encoded (must be prefixed with 'enc:' if it is encoded)
      --audit-signature string   audit signature mode. ignore|validate. If 'ignore' is set auditor doesn't check for the root server signature. If 'validate' is set auditor verify that the root is signed properly by immudb server. Default value is 'ignore'
      --audit-username string    immudb username used to login during audit
      --certificate string       server certificate file path (default "./tools/mtls/4_client/certs/localhost.cert.pem")
      --clientcas string         clients certificates list. Aka certificate authority (default "./tools/mtls/2_intermediate/certs/ca-chain.cert.pem")
      --config string            config file (default path are configs or $HOME. Default filename is immuclient.toml)
      --dir string               Main directory for audit process tool to initialize (default "/tmp")
      --max-recv-msg-size        max message size in bytes the client can receive
  -h, --help                     help for immuclient
  -a, --immudb-address string    immudb host address (default "127.0.0.1")
  -p, --immudb-port int          immudb port number (default 3322)
  -m, --mtls                     enable mutual tls
      --pkey string              server private key path (default "./tools/mtls/4_client/private/localhost.key.pem")
      --prometheus-host string   Launch host of the Prometheus exporter. (default "0.0.0.0")
      --prometheus-port string   Launch port of the Prometheus exporter. (default "9477")
      --roots-filepath string    Filepath for storing root hashes after every successful audit loop. Default is tempdir of every OS. (default "/tmp/")
      --servername string        used to verify the hostname on the returned certificates (default "localhost")
      --tokenfile string         authentication token file (default path is $HOME or binary location; default filename is token) (default "token")
      --value-only               returning only values for get operations

Use "immuclient [command] --help" for more information about a command.

immuadmin

For security reasons we recommend using immuadmin only on the same system as immudb. User management is restricted to localhost usage. Simply run ./immuadmin on the same machine.

CLI admin client for immudb - the lightweight, high-speed immutable database for systems and applications.

Environment variables:
  IMMUADMIN_IMMUDB_ADDRESS=127.0.0.1
  IMMUADMIN_IMMUDB_PORT=3322
  IMMUADMIN_MTLS=true
  IMMUADMIN_SERVERNAME=localhost
  IMMUADMIN_PKEY=./tools/mtls/4_client/private/localhost.key.pem
  IMMUADMIN_CERTIFICATE=./tools/mtls/4_client/certs/localhost.cert.pem
  IMMUADMIN_CLIENTCAS=./tools/mtls/2_intermediate/certs/ca-chain.cert.pem

Usage:
  immuadmin [command]

Available Commands:
  backup      Make a copy of the database files and folders
  database    Issue all database commands
  dump        Dump database content to a file
  help        Help about any command
  login       Login using the specified username and password (admin username is immudb)
  logout
  print       Print merkle tree
  restore     Restore the database from a snapshot archive or folder
  set         Update server config items: auth (none|password|cryptosig), mtls (true|false)
  stats       Show statistics as text or visually with the '-v' option. Run 'immuadmin stats -h' for details.
  status      Show heartbeat status
  user        Issue all user commands
  version     Show the immuadmin version

Flags:
      --certificate string      server certificate file path (default "./tools/mtls/4_client/certs/localhost.cert.pem")
      --clientcas string        clients certificates list. Aka certificate authority (default "./tools/mtls/2_intermediate/certs/ca-chain.cert.pem")
      --config string           config file (default path is configs or $HOME; default filename is immuadmin.toml)
  -h, --help                    help for immuadmin
  -a, --immudb-address string   immudb host address (default "127.0.0.1")
  -p, --immudb-port int         immudb port number (default 3322)
  -m, --mtls                    enable mutual tls
      --pkey string             server private key path (default "./tools/mtls/4_client/private/localhost.key.pem")
      --servername string       used to verify the hostname on the returned certificates (default "localhost")
      --tokenfile string        authentication token file (default path is $HOME or binary location; the supplied value will be automatically suffixed with _admin; default filename is token_admin) (default "token")

Use "immuadmin [command] --help" for more information about a command.

Docker

All cli components are also available as docker images on dockerhub.com.

Component Container image
immuadmin https://hub.docker.com/r/codenotary/immuadmin
immuclient https://hub.docker.com/r/codenotary/immuclient

Run immuadmin

You can either find immuadmin in the immudb container (/usr/local/bin/immuadmin) or run the docker container to connect to the local immudb.

docker run -it --rm --name immuadmin codenotary/immuadmin:latest status

Run immuclient

You can either find immuclient in the immudb container (/usr/local/bin/immuclient) or run the docker container to connect to the local or remote immudb.

docker run -it --rm --name immuclient codenotary/immuclient:latest -a <immudb-host>

Build the container images yourself

If you want to build the container images yourself, simply clone this repo and run

docker build -t myown/immuadmin:latest -f Dockerfile.immuadmin .
docker build -t myown/immuclient:latest -f Dockerfile.immuclient .

Migration from older releases

As for release 0.8 of immudb, which includes multi-key insertions, key-value data needs to be univocally referenced by a monotonic increasing index i.e. internally referred as ts. Values are prefixed with the uniquely assigned ts value for the entry. Thus, databases created before release 0.8 needs to be migrated.
Under tools folder you will find a simple migration tool which will format data according to the new structure.

Building migration tool binary

Building migration tool binary is as simple as:

go build tools/migration/migration_v0.8.go

How to use migration tool

./migration_v0.8 --help
Usage of ./migration_v0.8:
  -sourceDataDir string
    	immudb data directory to migrate e.g. ./data_v0.7 (default "data_v0.7")
  -targetDataDir string
    	immudb data directory where migrated immudb databases will be stored e.g. ./data_v0.8 (default "data_v0.8")

Migrating existent databases

The migration tool builds new databases by doing a full scan of existent ones. While it's a read-only process for existent databases, doing a backup is always a safe recommendation.

./migration_v0.8 -sourceDataDir ./data_v0.7 -targetDataDir ./data_v0.8

2 databases will be migrated

Started migration of data_v0.7/defaultdb to ./data_v0.8/defaultdb.................................................................................COMPLETED!

Started migration of data_v0.7/systemdb to ./data_v0.8/systemdb........COMPLETED!

All databases have been successfully migrated!

Why immudb

immudb has been developed with performance, scalability and versatility in mind. The user feedback has shown that they love the very high throughput and being able to store hashes as well as data. They see it as a great alternative to using a blockchain or ledger service.

That makes immudb fit to store changes to other database fields (like Microsoft SQL or MongoDB) in a tamperproof fashion.

You can find an example video here:

News

August 21th, 2020 - Updated and New SDKs!

SDKs for Java, Golang, .net, Python and Node are fully compatible with latest immudb release v0.8.0:

  1. immudb4j immudb4j
  2. Golang immudb-go
  3. .net immudb4dotnet
  4. Python immudb-py
  5. Node.js immudb-node

September 15th, 2020 - immudb v0.8.0 released!

Release v0.8.0 Multi-key insertion, crypto signature, immugw moved to a separate repository, bug fixes & enhancements

August 20th, 2020 - immudb4j v0.1.7 in GitHub Packages!

immudb4j v0.1.7 Token-based authentication, multi-database and transactional support. Compatible with latest immudb release v0.7.1

August 17th, 2020 - immudb v0.7.1 released!

Release v0.7.1 Bug Fixes & Enhancements

August 10th, 2020 - immudb v0.7.0 released!

Release v0.7.0 multi-database support, more resilience, even better performance, improved documentation

June 16th, 2020 - immudb v0.6.2 released!

Release v0.6.2 ringbuffer management fix, improved user management for automatic deployment, improved container support

June 9th, 2020 - immudb v0.6.1 released!

Release v0.6.1 fixes some important bugs and has many improvements - we recommend updating to it

May 28, 2020 - immudb v0.6.0 GA released!

We're thrilled to announce our GA Release v0.6.0 that contains many improvements, bug fixes and new audit features.

May 19, 2020 - immudb v0.6.0-rc2 released!

Release v0.6.0-rc2 is our second public release and contains an all new immuclient CLI as well as a built-in Trust Checker that does a server based continous consistency check.

May 11, 2020 - immudb v0.6.0-rc1 released!

Release v0.6.0-rc1 is our first release to the public. While we were using immudb for quite some time in the codenotary.io platform, we're thrilled to finally release it to the Open Source community (Apache 2 license).

The release contains 2 components, the main immutable database immudb and the admin CLI tool immuadmin. immudb is ready to be used on Linux as well as Microsoft Windows.

Tech specs

Topic Description
DB Model Key-Value store with 3D access (key-value-index)
Data scheme schema-free
Implementation design LSM tree with value log and parallel Merkle Tree
Implementation language Go
Server OS(s) BSD, Linux, OS X, Solaris, Windows
Embeddable Yes, optionally
Server APIs gRPC (using protocol buffers); immudb RESTful;
Partition methods Sharding
Consistency concepts Eventual Consistency Immediate Consistency
Transaction concepts ACID with Snapshot Isolation (SSI)
Durability Yes
Snapshots Yes
High Read throughput Yes
High Write throughput Yes
Optimized for SSD Yes

How immudb works

Download immmudb short research paper to have a conceptual understanding of the technical foundations of immudb.

adding data

When adding data the merkle tree changes as well as shown in the diagram

immudb-adding-data-diagram

checking data consistency

The following diagram explains how data is inserted, verified and consistency checked.

immudb-consistency-diagram

Structured value

The messages structure allows callers to use key value pairs as embedded payload. Thus, it will soon be possible to decouple and extend
the value structure. The value, currently a stream of bytes, can be augmented with some client provided metadata.
This also permits use of an on-demand serialization/deserialization strategy.

The payload includes a timestamp and a value at the moment. In the near future cryptographic signatures will be added as well, but it's
possible to decouple and extend. The entire payload contribute to hash generation and is inserted in
the merkle tree.

All the complexity is hidden by the SDK.

Root signature

Providing immudb with a signing key enables the cryptographic root signature.
In this way an auditor for instance or a third party client could verify the authenticity of the returned root hash / index pair after calling currentRoot gRPC method.
Here the gRPC message definitions:

message Root {
	RootIndex payload = 1;
	Signature signature = 2;
}

message RootIndex {
	uint64 index = 1;
	bytes root = 2;
}

message Signature {
	bytes signature = 1;
	bytes publicKey = 2;
}

It's possible to use the environment IMMUDB_SIGNING_KEY or --signingKey immudb flag.

To generate a valid key it's possible to use openssl tool:

openssl ecparam -name prime256v1 -genkey -noout -out my.key

Immuclient and immugw are shipped with auditor capabilities.
To obtain the advantages of using the signed root in combination with the auditor it's possible to launch:

  • immuclient with auditor capabilities:
immuclient audit-mode --audit-username {immudb-username} --audit-password {immudb-pw} --audit-signature validate
  • with immugw with auditor capabilities:
./immugw --audit --audit-username {immudb-username} --audit-password {immudb-pw} --audit-signature validate

Item References

Enables the insertion of a special entry which references to another item

Value timestamp

The server should not set the timestamp, to avoid relying on a non-verifiable “single source of truth”.
Thus, the clients must provide it. The client driver implementation can automatically do that for the user.

Primary Index

Index enables queries and search based on the data key

Secondary Index

Index enables queries and search based on the data value

Cryptographic signatures

A signature (PKI) provided by the client can be became part of the insertion process

Authentication (transport)

Integrated mTLS offers the best approach for machine-to-machine authentication, also providing communications security (entryption) over the transport channel

Monitor status and performance

immuadmin CLI

With immuadmin stats you can access text -t or visual statistics:

./immuadmin stats -t
Database path              :    db/immudb
Uptime                     :    1m38.64s
Number of entries          :    12
LSM size                   :    701 B
VLog size                  :    1.1 kB
Total size                 :    1.8 kB
Number of clients          :    1
Queries per client         :
   127.0.0.1               :    26
      Last query           :    749.641765ms ago
Avg. duration (nb calls)   :    µs
   ByIndex (0)             :    0
   ByIndexSV (0)           :    0
   ChangePassword (0)      :    0
   Consistency (0)         :    0
   Count (0)               :    0
   CreateUser (0)          :    0
   CurrentRoot (0)         :    0
   DeactivateUser (0)      :    0
   Dump (0)                :    0
   Get (5)                 :    20
   GetBatch (0)            :    0
   GetBatchSV (0)          :    0
   GetSV (0)               :    0
   Health (16)             :    33
   History (0)             :    0
   HistorySV (0)           :    0
   IScan (0)               :    0
   IScanSV (0)             :    0
   Inclusion (0)           :    0
   Login (0)               :    0
   Reference (0)           :    0
   SafeGet (0)             :    0
   SafeGetSV (0)           :    0
   SafeReference (0)       :    0
   SafeSet (0)             :    0
   SafeSetSV (0)           :    0
   SafeZAdd (0)            :    0
   Scan (0)                :    0
   ScanSV (0)              :    0
   Set (5)                 :    76
   SetBatch (0)            :    0
   SetBatchSV (0)          :    0
   SetSV (0)               :    0
   ZAdd (0)                :    0
   ZScan (0)               :    0
   ZScanSV (0)             :    0

or visual (default)

stats-v

Performance monitoring (Prometheus)

immudb has a built-in prometheus exporter that publishes all metrics at port 9497 (:9497/metrics) by default. When running a Prometheus instance, you can configure the target like in this example:

  - job_name: 'immudbmetrics'
    scrape_interval: 60s
    static_configs:
         - targets: ['my-immudb-server:9497']

Grafana

There is a Grafana dashboard available as well: https://grafana.com/grafana/dashboards/12026

grafana-dashboard

Real world examples

We already learned about the following use cases from users:

  • use immudb to immutably store every update to sensitive database fields (credit card or bank account data) of an existing application database
  • store CI/CD recipes in immudb to protect build and deployment pipelines
  • store public certificates in immudb
  • use immudb as an additional hash storage for digital objects checksums
  • store log streams (i. e. audit logs) tamperproof

GitHub