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LiteFS is a FUSE-based file system for replicating SQLite databases across a cluster of machines. It works as a passthrough file system that intercepts writes to SQLite databases in order to detect transaction boundaries and record changes on a per-transaction level in LTX files.

This project is actively maintained but is currently in an alpha state. The file system and replication are functional but testing & hardening are need to make it production-ready. This repository is open source in order to collect feedback and ideas for how to make SQLite replication better.


Install dependencies

LiteFS currently only runs on Linux and it requires the FUSE 3 library which is available on newer Linux system. To install, run the following:

apt install fuse3 libfuse-dev

You will also need to run Consul for leader election. You can run in development mode if you’re testing locally:

consul agent -dev

Configure & run LiteFS

You’ll also need a config file for your LiteFS instance. You can find an example config in the repo or you can simply set a few of the fields like this:

mount-dir: "/path/to/mnt"

  addr: ":20202"

  url: "http://localhost:8500"
  advertise-url: "http://localhost:20202"

Then create the mount directory:

mkdir /path/to/mnt

And run LiteFS by passing in the path to your config:

litefs -config /path/to/litefs.yml

Testing your setup

You can now run SQLite against your LiteFS directory:

sqlite3 /path/to/mnt/my.db

Executing commands against the database should work the same as a regular file system.

Attaching a second node

You can run another instance of LiteFS with a separate config & mount directory:

mount-dir: "/path/to/another_mnt"

  addr: ":30303"

  url: "http://localhost:8500"
  advertise-url: "http://localhost:30303"

When you start the second instance, it should say that it is connected to the primary.

Executing SQL write commands on the primary node such as CREATE TABLE or INSERT, it should instantly show the data propagated to the replica node. If you try to execute these write commands on the replica, you’ll receive an error as the replicas are read-only.

If you SIGINT (CTRL-C) the first instance, it will destroy the lease and the second node should take over as primary. You can now issue write commands to this new primary node. Connecting your first instance again should begin replicating data right away.


If litefs does not exit cleanly then you may need to manually run umount to unmount the file system before re-mounting it:

umount -f /path/to/mnt

litefs will not unmount cleanly if there is a SQLite connection open so be sure to close your application or sqlite3 sessions before unmounting.


The LiteFS system is composed of 3 major parts:

  1. FUSE file system: intercepts file system calls to record transactions.
  2. Leader election: currently implemented by Consul using sessions
  3. HTTP server: provides an API for replica nodes to receive changes.

Lite Transaction Files (LTX)

Each transaction in SQLite is simply a collection of one or more pages to be written. This is done safely by the rollback journal or the write-ahead log (WAL) within a SQLite database.

An LTX file is an additional packaging format for these change sets. Unlike the journal or the WAL, the LTX file is optimized for use in a replication system by utilizing the following:

  • Checksumming across the LTX file to ensure consistency.
  • Rolling checksum of the entire database on every transaction.
  • Sorted pages for efficient compactions to ensure fast recovery time.
  • Page-level encryption (future work)
  • Transactional event data (future work)

Each LTX file is associated with an autoincrementing transaction ID (TXID) so that replicas can know their position relative to the primary node. This TXID is also associated with a rolling checksum of the entire database to ensure that the database is never corrupted if a split brain occurs. Please see the Guarantees section to understand how async replication and split brain works.

File system

The FUSE-based file system allows the user to mount LiteFS to a directory. For the primary node in the cluster, this means it can intercept write transactions via the file system interface and it is transparent to the application and SQLite.

For replica nodes, the file system adds protections by ensuring databases are not writeable. The file system also provides information about the current primary node to the application via the .primary file.

In SQLite, write transactions work by copying pages out to the rollback journal, updating pages in the database file, and then deleting the rollback journal when complete. LiteFS passes all these file system calls through to the underlying files, however, it intercepts the journal deletion at the end to convert the updated pages to an LTX file.

Currently, LiteFS only supports the SQLite rollback journal but it will support WAL mode and possibly wal2 in the future.

Leader election

Because LiteFS is meant to be used in ephemeral deployments such as or Kubernetes, it cannot use a distributed consensus algorithm that requires strong membership such as Raft. Instead, it delegates leader election to Consul sessions and uses a time-based lease system.

Distributed leases work by obtaining a lock on a key within Consul which guarantees that only one node can be the primary at any given time. This lease has a time-to-live (TTL) which is automatically renewed by the primary as long as it is alive. If the primary shuts down cleanly, the lease is destroyed and another node can immediately become the new primary. If the primary dies unexpectedly then the TTL must expire before a new node will become primary.

Since LiteFS uses async replication, replica nodes may be at different replication positions, however, whichever node becomes primary will dictate the state of the database. This means replicas which are further ahead could potentially lose some transactions. See the Guarantees section below for more information.

HTTP server

Replica nodes communicate with the primary node over HTTP. When they connect to the primary node, they specify their replication position, which is their transaction ID and a rolling checksum of the entire database. The primary node will then begin sending transaction data to the replica starting from that position. If the primary no longer has that transaction position available, it will resend a snapshot of the current database and begin replicating transactions from there.


LiteFS is intended to provide easy, live, asychronous replication across ephemeral nodes in a cluster. This approach makes trade-offs as compared with simpler disaster recovery tools such as Litestream and more complex but strongly-consistent tools such as rqlite.

As with any async replication system, there’s a window of time where transactions are only durable on the primary node and have not been replicated to a replica node. A catastrophic crash on the primary would cause these transactions to be lost. Typically, this window is subsecond as transactions can quickly be shuttled from the primary to the replicas.

Synchronous replication and time-bounded asynchronous replication is planned for future versions of LiteFS.

Ensuring consistency during split brain

Because LiteFS uses async replication, there is the potential that a primary could receive writes but is unable to replicate them during a network partition. If the primary node loses its leader status and later connects to the new leader, its database state will have diverged from the new leader. If it naively began applying transactions from the new leader, it could corrupt its database state.

Instead, LiteFS utilizes a rolling checksum which represents a checksum of the entire database at every transaction. When the old primary node connects to the new primary node, it will see that its checksum is different even though its transaction ID could be the same. At this point, it will resnapshot the database from the new primary to ensure consistency.

Rolling checksum implementation

The rolling checksum is implemented by combining checksums of every page together. When a page is written, LiteFS will compute the CRC64 of the page number and the page data and XOR them into the rolling checksum. It will also compute this same page checksum for the old page data and XOR that value out of the rolling checksum.

This approach gives us strong guarantees about the exact byte contents of the database at every transaction and it is fast to compute. As XOR is associative, it is also possible to compute on a raw database file from scratch to ensure consistency.

Contribution Policy

LiteFS is open to code contributions for bug fixes only. Features carry a long-term maintenance burden so they will not be accepted at this time. Please submit an issue if you have a feature you’d like to request.


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