/ Command Line

Go framework for rapid command line application development

Go framework for rapid command line application development

Command line interface framework

Another CLI framework for Go.

Example

clifv

package main

import "gopkg.in/ukautz/clif.v1"

func main() {
	clif.New("My App", "1.0.0", "An example application").
		New("hello", "The obligatory hello world", func(out clif.Output) {
			out.Printf("Hello World\n")
		}).
		Run()
}

Install

$ go get gopkg.in/ukautz/clif.v1

Getting started

On the one side, CLIF's builder-like API can be easily used for rapid development of small, single purpose tools. On the other side, CLIF is designed with complex console applications in mind.

Commands

Commands must have a unique name and can have additional arguments and options.

cmd1 := clif.NewCommand("name", "A description", callBackFunction)
cmd2 := clif.NewCommand("other", "Another description", callBackFunction2)

The name is used from the command line to call the command:

$ ./app name
$ ./app other

Callback functions

Callback functions can have arbitrary parameters. CLIF uses a small, built-in (signatur) injection container which allows you to register any kind of object (struct or interface) beforehand.

So you can register any object (interface{}, struct{} .. and anything else, see below) in your bootstrap and then "require" those instances by simply putting them in the command callback signature:

// Some type definition
type MyFoo struct {
    X int
}

func main() {
    // init cli
    cli := clif.New("My App", "1.0.0", "An example application")

    // register object instance with container
    foo := &MyFoo{X: 123}
    cli.Register(foo)

    // Create command with callback using the peviously registered instance
    cli.NewCommand("foo", "Call foo", func (foo *MyFoo) {
        // do something with foo
    })

    cli.Run()
}

Using interfaces is possible as well, but a bit less elegant:

// Some interface
type MyBar interface {
    Bar() string
}

// Some type
type MyFoo struct {
}

// implement interface
func (m *MyFoo) Bar() string {
    return "bar"
}

func main() {
    // init cli
    cli := clif.New("My App", "1.0.0", "An example application")

    // create object, which implements MyBar:
    foo := &MyFoo{}
    t := reflect.TypeOf((*MyBar)(nil)).Elem()
    cli.RegisterAs(t.String(), foo)

    // Register command with callback using the type
    cli.NewCommand("bar", "Call bar", func (bar MyBar) {
        // do something with bar
    })

    cli.Run()
}

Named

Everything works great if you only have a single instance of any object of a specific type.
However, if you need more than one instance (which might often be the case for primitive
types, such as int or string) you can use named registering:

// Register abitrary objects under unique name
cli.RegisterNamed("foo", new(MyFoo)).
    RegisterNamed("bar", 123).
    RegisterNamed("baz", "bla")

// Register command with callback named container
cli.NewCommand("bar", "Call bar", func (named clif.NamedParameters) {
    asMap := map[string]interface{}(named)
    fmt.Println(asMap["baz"].(string))
})

Note: If you want to use the named feature, you cannot Register() any NamedParameters
instance yourself, since "normally" registered objects are evaluated before named.

Default objects

CLIF pre-populates the dependency container with a couple of built-in objects:

  • The Output (formatted output helper, see below), eg func (out clif.Output) { .. }
  • The Input (input helper, see below), eg func (in clif.Input) { .. }
  • The *Cli instance itself, eg func (c *clif.Cli) { .. }
  • The current *Command instance, eg func (o *clif.Command) { .. }

Arguments and Options

CLIF can deal with arguments and options. The difference being:

  • Arguments come after the command name. They are identified by their position.
  • Options have no fixed position. They are identified by their --opt-name (or alias, eg -O)

Of course you can use arguments and options at the same time..

Arguments

Arguments are additional command line parameters which come after the command name itself.

cmd := clif.NewCommand("hello", "A description", callBackFunction)
	.NewArgument("name", "Name for greeting", "", true, false)

arg := cmd.NewAgument("other", "Something ..", "default", false, true)
cmd.AddArgument(arg)

Arguments consist of a name, a description, an optional default value a required flag and a multiple flag.

$ ./my-app hello the-name other1 other2 other3
#            ^      ^       ^       ^     ^
#            |      |       |       |     |
#            |      |       |       | third "other" arg
#            |      |       |  second "other" arg
#            |      |  first "other" arg
#            |  the "name" arg
#        command name

Position of arguments matters. Make sure you add them in the right order. And: required arguments must come before optional arguments (makes sense, right?). There can be only one multiple argument at all and, of course, it must be the last (think: variadic).

You can access the arguments by injecting the command instance *clif.Command into the callback and calling the Argument() method. You can choose to interpret the argument as String(), Int(), Float(), Bool(), Time() or Json(). Multiple arguments can be accessed with Strings(), Ints() .. and so on. Count() gives the amount of (provided) multiple arguments and Provided() returns bool for optional arguments. Please see parameter.go for more.

func callbackFunctionI(c *clif.Command) {
	// a single
	name := c.Argument("name").String()

	// a multiple
	others := c.Argument("other").Strings()

	// .. do something ..
}

Options

Options have no fixed position, meaning ./app --foo --bar and ./app --bar --foo are equivalent. Options are referenced by their name (eg --name) or alias (eg -n). Unless the option is a flag (see below) it must have a value. The value must immediately follow the option. Valid forms are: --name value, --name=value, -n value and -n=value.

Options must come before the command, unless they use the = separator. For example: ./app command --opt value is valid, ./app --opt=value command is valid but ./app --opt value command is not valid (since it becomes impossible to distinguish between command and value).

cmd := clif.NewCommand("hello", "A description", callBackFunction)
	.NewOption("name", "n", "Name for greeting", "", true, false)

arg := cmd.NewOption("other", "O", "Something ..", "default", false, true)
cmd.AddOption(arg)

Now:

$ ./my-app hello --other bar -n Me -O foo
#                       ^       ^    ^
#                       |       |    |
#                       |       |  second other opt with value
#                       |   name opt with value
#                  first other opt with value

You can access options the same way as arguments, just use Option() instead.

func callbackFunctionI(c *clif.Command) {
	name := c.Option("name").String()
	others := c.Option("other").Strings()
	// .. do something ..
}
Flags

There is a special kind of option, which does not expect a parameter: the flag. As options, their position is arbitrary.

// shorthand
flag := clif.NewFlag("my-flag", "f", "Something ..", false)
// which would just do:
flag = clif.NewOption("my-flag", "f", "Something ..", "", false, false).IsFlag()
cmd := clif.NewCommand("hello", "A description", callBackFunction).AddOption(flag)

When using the option, you dont need to (nor can you) provide an argument:

$ ./my-app hello --my-flag

You want to use Bool() to check if a flag is provided:

func callbackFunctionI(c *clif.Command) {
	if c.Option("my-flag").Bool() {
		// ..
	}
}

Validation & (Parsing | Transformation)

You can validate/parse/transform the input using the Parse attribute of options or arguments. It can be (later on)
set using the SetParse() method:

// Validation example
arg := clif.NewArgument("my-int", "An integer", "", true, false).
    SetParse(func(name, value string) (string, error) {
        if _, err := strconv.Atoi(value); err != nil {
            return "", fmt.Errorf("Oops: %s is not an integer: %s", name, err)
        } else {
            return value, nil
        }
    })

// Transformation example
opt := clif.NewOption("client-id", "c", "The client ID", "", true, false).
    SetParse(func(name, value string) (string, error) {
        if strings.Index(value, "#") != 0 {
            return fmt.Sprintf("#%s", value), nil
        } else {
            return value, nil
        }
    })

There are a few built-in validators you can use out of the box:

  • clif.IsInt - Checks for integer, eg clif.NewOption(..).SetParse(clif.IsInt)
  • clif.IsFloat - Checks for float, eg clif.NewOption(..).SetParse(clif.IsFloat)

See validators.go.

Environment variables & default

The argument and option constructors (NewArgument, NewOption) already allow you to set a default. In addition you can set
the name of an environment variable, which will be used, if the parameter is not provided.

opt := clif.NewOption("client-id", "c", "The client ID", "", true, false).SetEnv("CLIENT_ID")

The order is:

  1. Provided, eg --config /path/to/config
  2. Environment variable, eg CONFIG_FILE
  3. Default value, as provided in constructor or set via SetDefault()

Note: A required parameter must have a value, but it does not care whether it came from input, via environment variable or as a default value.

Default options

Often you need one or multiple options on every or most commands. The usual --verbose or --config /path.. are common examples.
CLIF provides two ways to deal with those.

  1. Modifying/extending clif.DefaultOptions (it's pre-filled with the --help option, which is clif.DefaultHelpOption)
  2. Calling AddDefaultOptions() or NewDefaultOption() on an instance of clif.Cli

The former is global (for any instance of clif.Cli) and assigned to any new command (created by the NewCommand constructor). The latter is applied when Run() is called and is in the scope of a single clif.Cli instance.

Note: A helpful patterns is combining default options and the injection container/registry. Following an example parsing a config file, which can be set on any command with --config /path.. or as an environment variable and has a default path.


type Conf struct {
    Foo string
    Bar string
}

func() main {

    // init new cli app
    cli := clif.New("my-app", "1.2.3", "My app that does something")

    // register default option, which fills injection container with config instance
    configOpt := clif.NewOption("config", "c", "Path to config file", "/default/config/path.json", true, false).
        SetEnv("MY_APP_CONFIG").
        SetParse(function(name, value string) (string, error) {
            conf := new(Conf)
            if raw, err := ioutil.ReadFile(value); err != nil {
                return "", fmt.Errorf("Could not read config file %s: %s", value, err)
            } else if err = json.Unmarshal(raw, conf); err != nil {
                return "", fmt.Errorf("Could not unmarshal config file %s: %s", value, err)
            } else if conf.Foo == "" {
                return "", fmt.Errorf("Config %s is missing \"foo\"", value)
            } else {
                // register *Conf
                cli.Register(conf)
                return value, nil
            }
        })
    cli.AddDefaultOptions(configOpt)

    // Since *Conf was registered it can be used in any callback
    cli.New("anything", "Does anything", func(conf *Conf) {
        // do something with conf
    })

    cli.Run()
}

Input & Output

Of course, you can just use fmt and os.Stdin, but for convenience (and fancy output) there are clif.Output and clif.Input.

Input

You can inject an instance of the clif.Input interface into your command callback. It provides small set of often used tools.

input

Ask & AskRegex

Just ask the user a question then read & check the input. The question will be asked until the check/requirement is satisfied (or the user exits out with ctrl+c):

func callbackFunctionI(in clif.Input) {
	// Any input is OK
	foo := in.Ask("What is a foo", nil)

	// Validate input
	name := in.Ask("Who are you? ", func(v string) error {
		if len(v) > 0 {
			return nil
		} else {
			return fmt.Errorf("Didn't catch that")
		}
	})

	// Shorthand for regex validation
	count := in.AskRegex("How many? ", regexp.MustCompile(`^[0-9]+$`))

	// ..
}

See clif.RenderAskQuestion for customization.

Confirm

Confirm() ask the user a question until it is answered with yes (or y) or no (or n) and returns the response as bool.

func callbackFunctionI(in clif.Input) {
	if in.Confirm("Let's do it?") {
		// ..
	}
}

See clif.ConfirmRejection, clif.ConfirmYesRegex and clif.ConfirmNoRegex for customization.

Choose

Choose() is like a select in HTML and provides a list of options with descriptions to the user. The user then must choose (type in) one of the options. The choices will be presented to the user until a valid choice (one of the options) is provided.

func callbackFunctionI(in clif.Input) {
	father := in.Choose("Who is your father?", map[string]string{
		"yoda":  "The small, green guy",
		"darth": "The one with the smoker voice and the dark cape!",
		"obi":   "The old man with the light thingy",
	})

	if father == "darth" {
		// ..
	}
}

See clif.RenderChooseQuestion, clif.RenderChooseOption and clif.RenderChooseQuery for customization.

Output & formatting

The clif.Output interface can be injected into any callback. It relies on a clif.Formatter, which does the actual formatting (eg colorizing) of the text.

Output themes

Per default, the clif.DefaultInput via clif.NewColorOutput() is used. It uses clif.DefaultStyles, which look like the screenshots you are seeing in this readme.

You can change the output like so:

cli := clif.New(..)
cli.SetOutput(clif.NewColorOutput().
    SetFormatter(clif.NewDefaultFormatter(clif.SunburnStyles))

Styles

Styles are applied by parsing (replacing) tokens like <error>, which would be substitude with \033[31;1m (using the default styles) resulting in a red coloring. Another example is <reset>, which is replaced with \033[0m leading to reset all colorings & styles.

There three built-in color styles (of course, you can extend them or add your own):

  1. DefaultStyles - as you can see on this page
  2. SunburnStyles - more yellow'ish
  3. WinterStyles - more blue'ish

Table

Table rendering is a neat tool for CLIs. CLIF supports tables out of the box using the Output interface.

Features:

  • Multi-line columns
  • Column auto fit
  • Formatting (color) within columns
  • Automatic stretch to max size (unless specifcied otherwise)

Example:

var (
    headers := []string{"Name", "Age", "Force"}
    rows = [][]string{
        {
            "<important>Yoda<reset>",
            "Very, very old",
            "Like the uber guy",
        },
        {
            "<important>Luke Skywalker<reset>",
            "Not that old",
            "A bit, but not that much",
        },
        {
            "<important>Anakin Skywalker<reset>",
            "Old dude",
            "He is Lukes father! Was kind of stronger in 1-3, but still failed to" +
                " kill Jar Jar Binks. Not even tried, though. What's with that?",
        },
	}
)

func callbackFunction(out clif.Output) {
	table := out.Table(headers)
	table.AddRows(rows)
	fmt.Println(table.Render())
}

Would print the following:

table-1

There are currently to styles available: ClosedTableStyle (above), ClosedTableStyleLight, OpenTableStyle (below) and OpenTableStyleLight:

func callbackFunction(out clif.Output) {
	table := out.Table(headers, clif.OpenTableStyle)
	table.AddRows(rows)
	fmt.Println(table.Render())
}

Would print the following:

table-2

Progress bar

Another often required tool is the progress bar. Hence CLIF provides one out of the box:

func cmdProgress(out clif.Output) error {
	pbs := out.ProgressBars()
	pb, _ := pbs.Init("default", 200)
	pbs.Start()
	var wg sync.WaitGroup
	wg.Add(1)
	go func(b clif.ProgressBar) {
		defer wg.Done()
		for i := 0; i < 200; i++ {
			b.Increment()
			<-time.After(time.Millisecond * 100)
		}
	}(pb)
	wg.Wait()
	<-pbs.Finish()
}

Would output this:

progress-1

Multiple bars are also possible, thanks to Greg Osuri's library:

func cmdProgress(out clif.Output) error {
	pbs := out.ProgressBars()
	pbs.Start()
	var wg sync.WaitGroup
	for i := 0; i < 3; i++ {
		wg.Add(1)
		pb, _ := pbs.Init(fmt.Sprintf("bar-%d", i+1), 200)
		go func(b clif.ProgressBar, ii int) {
			defer wg.Done()
			for i := 0; i < 200; i++ {
				b.Increment()
				<-time.After(time.Millisecond * time.Duration(100 * ii))
			}
		}(pb, i)
	}
	wg.Wait()
	<-pbs.Finish()
}

Would output this:

progress-2

You prefer those ASCII arrows? Just set pbs.SetStyle(clif.ProgressBarStyleAscii) and:

progress-3

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