asm build status GoDoc

Go library providing algorithms optimized to leverage the characteristics of
modern CPUs.


With the development of Cloud technologies, access to large scale compute
capacity has never been easier, and running distributed systems deployed across
dozens or sometimes hundreds of CPUs has become common practice. As a side
effect of being provided seemingly unlimited (but somewhat expensive) compute
capacity, software engineers are now in direct connections with the economical
and environmental impact of running the software they develop in production;
performance and efficiency of our programs matters today more than it has ever

Modern CPUs are complex machines with performance characteristic that may
vary by orders of magnitude depending on how they are used. Features like
branch prediction, instruction reordering, pipelining, or caching are all
input variables that determine the compute throughput that a CPU can achieve.
While compilers keep being improved, and often employ micro-optimizations that
would be counter-productive for human developers to be responsible for, there
are limitations to what they can do, and Assembly still has a role to play in
optimizing algorithms on hot code paths of large scale applications.

SIMD instruction sets offer interesting opportunities for software engineers.
Taking advantage of these instructions often requires rethinking how the program
represents and manipulates data, which is beyond the realm of optimizations that
can be implemented by a compiler. When renting CPU time from a Cloud provider,
programs that fail to leverage the full sets of instructions available are
therefore paying for features they do not use.

This package aims to provide such algorithms, optimized to leverage advanced
instruction sets of modern CPUs to maximize throughput and take the best
advantage of the available compute power. Users of the package will find
functions that have often been designed to work on arrays of values,
which is where SIMD and branchless algorithms shine.

The functions in this library have been used in high throughput production
environments at Segment, we hope that they will be useful to other developers
using Go in performance-sensitive software.


The library is composed of multiple Go packages intended to act as logical
groups of functions sharing similar properties:

Package Purpose
ascii library of functions designed to work on ASCII inputs
base64 standard library compatible base64 encodings
bswap byte swapping algorithms working on arrays of fixed-size items
cpu definition of the ABI used to detect CPU features
mem functions operating on byte arrays
qsort quick-sort implementations for arrays of fixed-size items
slices functions performing computations on pairs of slices
sortedset functions working on sorted arrays of fixed-size items

When no assembly version of a function is available for the target platform,
the package provides a generic implementation in Go which is automatically
picked up by the compiler.


The purpose of this library being to improve the runtime efficiency of Go
programs, we compiled a few snapshots of benchmark runs to showcase the
kind of improvements that these code paths can expect from leveraging
SIMD and branchless optimizations:

goos: darwin
goarch: amd64
cpu: Intel(R) Core(TM) i9-8950HK CPU @ 2.90GHz

name                  old time/op    new time/op     delta
EqualFoldString/0512     276ns ± 1%       21ns ± 2%    -92.50%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)

name                  old speed      new speed       delta
EqualFoldString/0512  3.71GB/s ± 1%  49.44GB/s ± 2%  +1232.79%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)

name    old time/op    new time/op     delta
Swap64    11.2µs ± 1%      0.9µs ± 9%    -92.06%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)

name    old speed      new speed       delta
Swap64  5.83GB/s ± 1%  73.67GB/s ± 9%  +1162.98%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)

name            old time/op    new time/op     delta
Sort16/1000000     269ms ± 2%       46ms ± 3%   -83.08%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)

name            old speed      new speed       delta
Sort16/1000000  59.4MB/s ± 2%  351.2MB/s ± 3%  +491.24%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)


Generation of the assembly code is managed with AVO,
and orchestrated by a Makefile which helps maintainers rebuild the assembly
source code when the AVO files are modified.

The repository contains two Go modules; the main module is declared as at the root of the repository, and the second
module is found in the build subdirectory.

The build module is used to isolate build dependencies from programs that
import the main module. Through this mechanism, AVO does not become a
dependency of programs using, keeping the
dependency management overhead minimal for the users, and allowing
maintainers to make modifications to the build package.

Versioning of the two modules is managed independently; while we aim to provide
stable APIs on the main package, breaking changes may be introduced on the
build package more often, as it is intended to be ground for more experimental
constructs in the project.


Programs in the build module should add the following declaration:

func init() {

It instructs AVO to inject the !purego tag in the generated files, allowing
compilation of the libraries without any assembly optimizations with a build
command such as:

go build -tags purego ...

This is mainly useful to compare the impact of using the assembly optimized
versions instead of the simpler Go-only implementations.


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