DBResolver adds multiple databases support to GORM, the following features are supported:

  • Multiple sources, replicas
  • Read/Write Splitting
  • Automatic connection switching based on the working table/struct
  • Manual connection switching
  • Sources/Replicas load balancing
  • Works for RAW SQL

Quick Start

import (

DB, err := gorm.Open(mysql.Open("db1_dsn"), &gorm.Config{})

  // use `db2` as sources, `db3`, `db4` as replicas
  Sources:  []gorm.Dialector{mysql.Open("db2_dsn")},
  Replicas: []gorm.Dialector{mysql.Open("db3_dsn"), mysql.Open("db4_dsn")},
  // sources/replicas load balancing policy
  Policy: dbresolver.RandomPolicy{},
  // use `db1` as sources (DB's default connection), `db5` as replicas for `User`, `Address`
  Replicas: []gorm.Dialector{mysql.Open("db5_dsn")},
}, &User{}, &Address{}).Register(dbresolver.Config{
  // use `db6`, `db7` as sources, `db8` as replicas for `orders`, `Product`
  Sources:  []gorm.Dialector{mysql.Open("db6_dsn"), mysql.Open("db7_dsn")},
  Replicas: []gorm.Dialector{mysql.Open("db8_dsn")},
}, "orders", &Product{}, "secondary"))


When using transaction, DBResolver will use the transaction and won’t switch to sources/replicas

Automatic connection switching

DBResolver will automatically switch connection based on the working table/struct

For RAW SQL, DBResolver will extract the table name from the SQL to match the resolver, and will use sources unless the SQL begins with SELECT, for example:

// `User` Resolver Examples
DB.Table("users").Rows() // replicas `db5`
DB.Model(&User{}).Find(&AdvancedUser{}) // replicas `db5`
DB.Exec("update users set name = ?", "jinzhu") // sources `db1`
DB.Raw("select name from users").Row().Scan(&name) // replicas `db5`
DB.Create(&user) // sources `db1`
DB.Delete(&User{}, "name = ?", "jinzhu") // sources `db1`
DB.Table("users").Update("name", "jinzhu") // sources `db1`

// Global Resolver Examples
DB.Find(&Pet{}) // replicas `db3`/`db4`
DB.Save(&Pet{}) // sources `db2`

// Orders Resolver Examples
DB.Find(&Order{}) // replicas `db8`
DB.Table("orders").Find(&Report{}) // replicas `db8`

Read/Write Splitting

Read/Write splitting with DBResolver based on the current using GORM callback.

For Query, Row callback, will use replicas unless Write mode specified For Raw callback, statements are considered read-only and will use replicas if the SQL starts with SELECT

Manual connection switching

// Use Write Mode: read user from sources `db1`

// Specify Resolver: read user from `secondary`'s replicas: db8

// Specify Resolver and Write Mode: read user from `secondary`'s sources: db6 or db7
DB.Clauses(dbresolver.Use("secondary"), dbresolver.Write).First(&user)

Load Balancing

GORM supports load balancing sources/replicas based on policy, the policy is an interface implements following interface:

type Policy interface {
	Resolve([]gorm.ConnPool) gorm.ConnPool

Currently only the RandomPolicy implemented and it is the default option if no policy specified.

Connection Pool

  dbresolver.Register(dbresolver.Config{ /* xxx */ }).
  SetConnMaxLifetime(24 * time.Hour).