Go Concurrency Guide

This guide is built on top of the some examples of the book Go Concurrency in Go and Go Programming Language

Race Condition and Data Race

Race condition occur when two or more operations must execute in the correct order, but the program has not been written so that this order is guaranteed to maintained.

Data race is when one concurrent operation attempts to read a variable while at some undetermined time another concurrent operation is attempting to write to the same variable, the main func is the main goroutine.

func main() {
    var data int
    go func() {
        data++
    }()

    if data == 0 {
        fmt.Println("the value is %d", data)
    }
}

Memory Access Synchronization

The sync package contains the concurrency primitives that are most useful for low-level memory access synchronization. Critical section is the place in your code that has access to a shared memory

Mutex

Mutex stands for “mutual exclusion” and is a way to protect critical sections of your program.

type Counter struct {
    mu sync.Mutex
    value int
}

func (c *Counter) Increment() {
    c.mu.Lock()
    defer c.mu.Unlock()
    c.value++
}

WaitGroup

Call to add a group of goroutines

var wg sync.WaitGroup
for _, salutation := range []string{"hello", "greetings", "good day"} {
    wg.Add(1)
    go func(salutation string) { 
        defer wg.Done()
        fmt.Println(salutation)
    }(salutation) 
}
wg.Wait()

RWMutex

More fine-grained memory control, being possible to request read-only lock

producer := func(wg *sync.WaitGroup, l sync.Locker) { 
    defer wg.Done()
    for i := 5; i > 0; i-- {
        l.Lock()
        l.Unlock()
        time.Sleep(1) 
    }
}

observer := func(wg *sync.WaitGroup, l sync.Locker) {
    defer wg.Done()
    l.Lock()
    defer l.Unlock()
}

test := func(count int, mutex, rwMutex sync.Locker) time.Duration {
    var wg sync.WaitGroup
    wg.Add(count+1)
    beginTestTime := time.Now()
    go producer(&wg, mutex)
    for i := count; i > 0; i-- {
        go observer(&wg, rwMutex)
    }

    wg.Wait()
    return time.Since(beginTestTime)
}

tw := tabwriter.NewWriter(os.Stdout, 0, 1, 2, ' ', 0)
defer tw.Flush()

var m sync.RWMutex
fmt.Fprintf(tw, "Readers\tRWMutex\tMutex\n")

for i := 0; i < 20; i++ {
    count := int(math.Pow(2, float64(i)))
    fmt.Fprintf(
        tw,
        "%d\t%v\t%v\n",
        count,
        test(count, &m, m.RLocker()),
        test(count, &m, &m),
    )
}

Cond

It would be better if there were some kind of way for a goroutine to efficiently sleep until it was signaled to wake and check its condition. This is exactly what the Cond type does for us.

The Cond and the Broadcast is the method that provides for notifying goroutines blocked on Wait call that the condition has been triggered.

type Button struct {
    Clicked *sync.Cond
}

func main() {
    button := Button{
        Clicked: sync.NewCond(&sync.Mutex{}),
    }

    // running on goroutine every function that passed/registered
    // and wait, not exit until that goroutine is confirmed to be running
    subscribe := func(c *sync.Cond, param string, fn func(s string)) {
        var goroutineRunning sync.WaitGroup
        goroutineRunning.Add(1)

        go func(p string) {
            goroutineRunning.Done()
            c.L.Lock() // critical section
            defer c.L.Unlock()

            fmt.Println("Registered and wait ... ")
            c.Wait()

            fn(p)
        }(param)

        goroutineRunning.Wait()
    }

    var clickRegistered sync.WaitGroup

    for _, v := range []string{
        "Maximizing window.",
        "Displaying annoying dialog box!",
        "Mouse clicked."} {

        clickRegistered.Add(1)

        subscribe(button.Clicked, v, func(s string) {
            fmt.Println(s)
            clickRegistered.Done()
        })
    }

    button.Clicked.Broadcast()

    clickRegistered.Wait()
}

cond samples

Once

Ensuring that only one execution will be carried out even among several goroutines

var count int

increment := func() {
    count++
}

var once sync.Once

var increments sync.WaitGroup
increments.Add(100)

for i := 0; i < 100; i++ {
    go func() {
        defer increments.Done()
        once.Do(increment)
    }()
}

increments.Wait()
fmt.Printf("Count is %d\n", count)

Pool

Manager the pool of connections, a quantity

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "sync"
)

func main() {
    myPool := &sync.Pool{
        New: func() interface{} {
            fmt.Println("Creating new instance.")

            return struct{}{}
        },
    }

    // Get call New function defined in pool if there is no instance started
    myPool.Get()
    instance := myPool.Get()
    fmt.Println("instance", instance)

    // here we put a previously retrieved instance back into the pool, 
    // this increases the number of instances available to one
    myPool.Put(instance)

    // when this call is executed, we will reuse the 
    // previously allocated instance and put it back in the pool
    myPool.Get()

    var numCalcsCreated int
    calcPool := &sync.Pool{
        New: func() interface{} {
            fmt.Println("new calc pool")

            numCalcsCreated += 1
            mem := make([]byte, 1024)

            return &mem
        },
    }

    fmt.Println("calcPool.New", calcPool.New())

    calcPool.Put(calcPool.New())
    calcPool.Put(calcPool.New())
    calcPool.Put(calcPool.New())
    calcPool.Put(calcPool.New())

    calcPool.Get()

    const numWorkers = 1024 * 1024
    var wg sync.WaitGroup
    wg.Add(numWorkers)

    for i := numWorkers; i > 0; i-- {
        go func() {
            defer wg.Done()

            mem := calcPool.Get().(*[]byte)
            defer calcPool.Put(mem)

            // Assume something interesting, but quick is being done with
            // this memory.
        }()
    }

    wg.Wait()
    fmt.Printf("%d calculators were created.", numCalcsCreated)
}

sync samples

Deadlocks, Livelocks, and Starvation

Deadlocks

Deadlocks is a program is one in which all concurrent processes are waiting on one another.

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "sync"
    "time"
)

type value struct {
    mu    sync.Mutex
    value int
}

func main() {
    var wg sync.WaitGroup
    printSum := func(v1, v2 *value) {
        defer wg.Done()
        v1.mu.Lock()
        defer v1.mu.Unlock()

        // deadlock
        time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
        v2.mu.Lock()
        defer v2.mu.Unlock()

        fmt.Printf("sum=%v\n", v1.value+v2.value)
    }

    var a, b value
    wg.Add(2)
    go printSum(&a, &b)
    go printSum(&b, &a)

    wg.Wait()
}

package main

func main() {
    message := make(chan string)

    // A goroutine ( main goroutine ) trying to send message to channel
    message <- "message" // fatal error: all goroutines are asleep - deadlock!
}

package main

func main() {
    message := make(chan string)

    // A goroutine ( main goroutine ) trying to receive message from channel
    <-message // fatal error: all goroutines are asleep - deadlock!
}

Livelocks

Livelocks are programs that are actively performing concurrent operations, but these operations do nothing to move the state of the program forward.

package main

import (
	"bytes"
	"fmt"
	"sync"
	"sync/atomic"
	"time"
)

func main() {
	cadence := sync.NewCond(&sync.Mutex{})
	go func() {
		for range time.Tick(1 * time.Millisecond) {
			cadence.Broadcast()
		}
	}()

	takeStep := func() {
		cadence.L.Lock()
		cadence.Wait()
		cadence.L.Unlock()
	}

	tryDir := func(dirName string, dir *int32, out *bytes.Buffer) bool {
		fmt.Fprintf(out, " %v", dirName)
		atomic.AddInt32(dir, 1)
		takeStep()

		if atomic.LoadInt32(dir) == 1 {
			fmt.Fprint(out, " . Success!")

			return true
		}

		takeStep()
		atomic.AddInt32(dir, -1)

		return false
	}

	var left, right int32
	tryLeft := func(out *bytes.Buffer) bool {
		return tryDir("left", &left, out)
	}

	tryRight := func(out *bytes.Buffer) bool {
		return tryDir("right", &right, out)
	}

	walk := func(walking *sync.WaitGroup, name string) {
		var out bytes.Buffer
		defer func() {
			fmt.Println(out.String())
		}()
		defer walking.Done()

		fmt.Fprintf(&out, "%v is trying to scoot:", name)
		for i := 0; i < 5; i++ {
			if tryLeft(&out) || tryRight(&out) {
				return
			}
		}

		fmt.Fprintf(&out, "\n%v tosses her hands up in exasperation", name)
	}

	var peopleInHallway sync.WaitGroup
	peopleInHallway.Add(2)

	go walk(&peopleInHallway, "Alice")
	go walk(&peopleInHallway, "Barbara")
	peopleInHallway.Wait()
}

Starvation

Starvation is any situation where a concurrent process cannot get all the resources it needs to perform work.

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"sync"
	"time"
)

func main() {
	fmt.Println("vim-go")

	var wg sync.WaitGroup
	var sharedLock sync.Mutex
	const runtime = 1 * time.Second

	greedyWorker := func() {
		defer wg.Done()

		var count int
		for begin := time.Now(); time.Since(begin) <= runtime; {
			sharedLock.Lock()
			time.Sleep(3 * time.Nanosecond)
			sharedLock.Unlock()
			count++
		}

		fmt.Printf("Greedy worker was able to execute %v work loops\n", count)
	}

	politeWorker := func() {
		defer wg.Done()

		var count int
		for begin := time.Now(); time.Since(begin) <= runtime; {
			sharedLock.Lock()
			time.Sleep(1 * time.Nanosecond)
			sharedLock.Unlock()

			sharedLock.Lock()
			time.Sleep(1 * time.Nanosecond)
			sharedLock.Unlock()

			sharedLock.Lock()
			time.Sleep(1 * time.Nanosecond)
			sharedLock.Unlock()

			count++
		}

		fmt.Printf("Polite worker was able to execute %v work loops \n", count)
	}

	wg.Add(2)
	go greedyWorker()
	go politeWorker()
	wg.Wait()
}

Channels

Channels are one of the synchronization primitives in Go derived from Hoare’s CSP. While they can be used to synchronize access of the memory, they are best used to communicate information between goroutines, default value for channel: nil.

To declare a channel to read and send

stream := make(chan interface{})

To declare unidirectional channel that only can read

stream := make(<-chan interface{})

To declare unidirectional channel that only can send

stream := make(chan<- interface{})

is not often see the instantiates channels unidirectional, only in parameters in functions, is common because Go convert them implicity

var receiveChan <-chan interface{}
var sendChan chan<- interface{}
dataStream := make(chan interface{})

// Valid statements:
receiveChan = dataStream
sendChan = dataStream

To receive

<-stream

to send

stream <- "Hello world"

Ranging over a channel the for range break the loop if the channel is closed

intStream := make(chan int)
go func() {
    defer close(intStream) 
    for i := 1; i <= 5; i++ {
        intStream <- i
    }
}()

for integer := range intStream {
    fmt.Printf("%v ", integer)
}

unbuffered channel A send operation on an unbuffered channel blocks the sending goroutine, until another goroutine performs a corresponding receive on the same channel; at that point, the value is passed, and both goroutines can continue. On the other hand, if a receive operation is attempted beforehand, the receiving goroutine is blocked until another goroutine performs a send on the same channel. Communication over an unbuffered channel makes the sending and receiving goroutines synchronize. Because of this, unbuffered channels are sometimes called synchronous channels. When a value is sent over an unbuffered channel, the reception of the value takes place before the sending goroutine wakes up again. In discussions of concurrency, when we say that x occurs before y, we do not simply mean that x occurs before y in time; we mean that this is guaranteed and that all your previous effects like updates to variables will complete and you can count on them. When x does not occur before y or after y, we say that x is concurrent with y. This is not to say that x and y are necessarily simultaneous; it just means that we can’t assume anything about your order

buffered channel both, read and write of a channel full or empty it will block, on the buffered channel

var dataStream chan interface{}
dataStream = make(chan interface{}, 4)

both, read and send a channel empty cause deadlock

var dataStream chan interface{}
<-dataStream // This panics with: fatal error: all goroutines are asleep - deadlock!

   goroutine 1 [chan receive (nil chan)]:
   main.main()
       /tmp/babel-23079IVB/go-src-23079O4q.go:9 +0x3f
   exit status 2

var dataStream chan interface{}
dataStream <- struct{}{} // This produces: fatal error: all goroutines are asleep - deadlock!

  goroutine 1 [chan send (nil chan)]:
  main.main()
      /tmp/babel-23079IVB/go-src-23079dnD.go:9 +0x77
  exit status 2

and a close channel cause a panic

var dataStream chan interface{}
close(dataStream) // This produces: panic: close of nil channel

  goroutine 1 [running]:
  panic(0x45b0c0, 0xc42000a160)
      /usr/local/lib/go/src/runtime/panic.go:500 +0x1a1
  main.main()
      /tmp/babel-23079IVB/go-src-230794uu.go:9 +0x2a
  exit status 2 Yipes! This is probably

Table with result of channel operations

Operation Channel State Result
Read nil Block
_ Open and Not Empty Value
_ Open and Empty Block
_ Close default value, false
_ Write Only Compilation Error
Write nil Block
_ Open and Full Block
_ Open and Not Full Write Value
_ Closed panic
_ Receive Only Compilation Error
Close nil panic
_ Open and Not Empty Closes Channel; reads succeed until channel is drained, then reads produce default value
_ Open and Empty Closes Channel; reads produces default value
_ Closed panic

TIP: Cannot close a receive-only channel

  • Let’s start with channel owners. The goroutine that has a channel must:

    • 1 – Instantiate the channel.
    • 2 – Perform writes, or pass ownership to another goroutine.
    • 3 – Close the channel.
    • 4 – Encapsulate the previous three things in this list and expose them via a reader channel.
  • When assigning channel owners responsibilities, a few things happen:

    • 1 – Because we’re the one initializing the channel, we remove the risk of deadlocking by writing to a nil channel.
    • 2 – Because we’re the one initializing the channel, we remove the risk of panicing by closing a nil channel.
    • 3 – Because we’re the one who decides when the channel gets closed, we remove the risk of panicing by writing to a closed channel.
    • 4 – Because we’re the one who decides when the channel gets closed, we remove the risk of panicing by closing a channel more than once.
    • 5 – We wield the type checker at compile time to prevent improper writes to our channel.

chanOwner := func() <-chan int {
    resultStream := make(chan int, 5) 
    go func() { 
        defer close(resultStream) 
        for i := 0; i <= 5; i++ {
            resultStream <- i
        }
    }()
    return resultStream 
}

resultStream := chanOwner()
for result := range resultStream { 
    fmt.Printf("Received: %d\n", result)
}

fmt.Println("Done receiving!")

The creation of channel owners explicitly tends to have greater control of when that channel should be closed and its operation, avoiding the delegation of these functions to other methods/functions of the system, avoiding reading closed channels or sending data to the same already finalized

select

the select cases do not work the same as the switch, which is sequential, and the execution will not automatically fall if none of the criteria is met.

var c1, c2 <-chan interface{}
var c3 chan<- interface{}
select {
case <- c1:
    // Do something
case <- c2:
    // Do something
case c3<- struct{}{}:

}

Instead, all channel reads and writes are considered simultaneously to see if any of them are ready: channels filled or closed in the case of reads and channels not at capacity in the case of writes. If none of the channels are ready, the entire select command is blocked. Then, when one of the channels is ready, the operation will proceed and its corresponding instructions will be executed.

start := time.Now()
c := make(chan interface{})
go func() {
    time.Sleep(5*time.Second)
    close(c) 
}()

fmt.Println("Blocking on read...")
select {
case <-c: 
    fmt.Printf("Unblocked %v later.\n", time.Since(start))
}

questions when work with select and channels

1 – What happens when multiple channels have something to read?

c1 := make(chan interface{}); close(c1)
c2 := make(chan interface{}); close(c2)

var c1Count, c2Count int
for i := 1000; i >= 0; i-- {
    select {
    case <-c1:
        c1Count++
    case <-c2:
        c2Count++
    }
}

fmt.Printf("c1Count: %d\nc2Count: %d\n", c1Count, c2Count)

This produces: c1Count: 505 c2Count: 496

half is read by c1 half by c2 by the Go runtime, cannot exactly predict how much each will be read, and will not be exactly the same for both, it can happen but cannot be predicted, the runtime knows nothing about the intent to own 2 channels receiving information or closed as in our example, then the runtime includes a pseudo-random Go runtime will perform a pseudo-random uniform selection over the select case statement set. This just means that from your set of cases, each one has the same chance of being selected as all the others.

A good way to do this is to introduce a random variable into your equation – in this case, which channel to select from. By weighing the chance that each channel is used equally, all Go programs that use the select statement will perform well in the average case.

2 – What if there are never any channels that become ready?

var c <-chan int
select {
case <-c: 
case <-time.After(1 * time.Second):
    fmt.Println("Timed out.")
}

To solve the problem of the channels being blocked, the default can be used to perform some other operation, or in the first example a time out with time.After

3 – What if we want to do something but no channels are currently ready? use default

start := time.Now()
var c1, c2 <-chan int
select {
case <-c1:
case <-c2:
default:
    fmt.Printf("In default after %v\n\n", time.Since(start))
}

exit a select block

done := make(chan interface{})
go func() {
    time.Sleep(5*time.Second)
    close(done)
}()

workCounter := 0
loop:
for {
    select {
    case <-done:
        break loop
    default:
    }

    // Simulate work
    workCounter++
    time.Sleep(1*time.Second)
}

fmt.Printf("Achieved %v cycles of work before signalled to stop.\n", workCounter)

block forever

select {}

GOMAXPROCS Prior to Go 1.5, GOMAXPROCS was always set to one, and usually you’d find this snippet in most Go programs:

runtime.GOMAXPROCS(runtime.NumCPU())

This function controls the number of operating system threads that will host so-called “Work Queues.” documentation

Use a sync.Mutex or a channel?

As a general guide, though:

Channel Mutex
passing ownership of data, distributing units of work, communicating async results caches, state

“Do not communicate by sharing memory; instead, share memory by communicating. (copies)”

Patterns

Confinement

Confinement is the simple yet powerful idea of ensuring information is only ever available from one concurrent process. There are two kinds of confinement possible: ad hoc and lexical.

Ad hoc confinement is when you achieve confinement through a convention

data := make([]int, 4)

loopData := func(handleData chan<- int) {
    defer close(handleData)
    for i := range data {
        handleData <- data[i]
    }
}

handleData := make(chan int)
go loopData(handleData)

for num := range handleData {
    fmt.Println(num)
}

Lexical confinement involves using lexical scope to expose only the correct data and concurrency primitives for multiple concurrent processes to use.

chanOwner := func() <-chan int {
    results := make(chan int, 5) 
    go func() {
        defer close(results)

        for i := 0; i <= 5; i++ {
            results <- i
        }
    }()
    return results
}

consumer := func(results <-chan int) { 
    for result := range results {
        fmt.Printf("Received: %d\n", result)
    }
    fmt.Println("Done receiving!")
}

results := chanOwner()
consumer(results)

sample

Cancellation

package main

func main() {
    doWork := func(
        done <-chan interface{},
        strings <-chan string,
    ) <-chan interface{} {
        terminated := make(chan interface{})
        go func() {
            defer fmt.Println("doWork exited.")
            defer close(terminated)
            for {

                select {
                case s := <-strings:
                    // Do something interesting
                    fmt.Println(s)
                case <-done:
                    return
                }
            }
        }()
        return terminated
    }

    done := make(chan interface{})
    terminated := doWork(done, nil)

    go func() {
        // Cancel the operation after 1 second.
        time.Sleep(1 * time.Second)
        fmt.Println("Canceling doWork goroutine...")
        close(done)
    }()

    <-terminated
    fmt.Println("Done.")
}

sample

OR Channel

At times you may find yourself wanting to combine one or more done channels into a single done channel that closes if any of its component channels close.

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "time"
)

func main() {
    var or func(channels ...<-chan interface{}) <-chan interface{}

    or = func(channels ...<-chan interface{}) <-chan interface{} {
        switch len(channels) {
        case 0:
            return nil
        case 1:
            return channels[0]
        }

        orDone := make(chan interface{})
        go func() {
            defer close(orDone)

            switch len(channels) {
            case 2:
                select {
                case <-channels[0]:
                case <-channels[1]:
                }
            default:
                select {
                case <-channels[0]:
                case <-channels[1]:
                case <-channels[2]:

                case <-or(append(channels[3:], orDone)...):
                }
            }
        }()

        return orDone
    }

    sig := func(after time.Duration) <-chan interface{} {
        c := make(chan interface{})
        go func() {
            defer close(c)
            time.Sleep(after)
        }()
        return c
    }

    start := time.Now()
    <-or(
        sig(2*time.Hour),
        sig(5*time.Minute),
        sig(1*time.Second),
        sig(1*time.Hour),
        sig(1*time.Minute),
    )

    fmt.Printf("done after %v", time.Since(start))
}

sample

Error Handling

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "net/http"
)

type Result struct {
    Error    error
    Response *http.Response
}

func main() {
    checkStatus := func(done <-chan interface{}, urls ...string) <-chan Result {
        results := make(chan Result)
        go func() {
            defer close(results)

            for _, url := range urls {
                var result Result
                resp, err := http.Get(url)
                result = Result{Error: err, Response: resp}

                select {
                case <-done:
                    return
                case results <- result:
                }
            }
        }()

        return results
    }

    done := make(chan interface{})
    defer close(done)

    urls := []string{"https://www.google.com", "https://badhost"}
    for result := range checkStatus(done, urls...) {
        if result.Error != nil {
            fmt.Printf("error: %v", result.Error)
            continue
        }

        fmt.Printf("Response: %v\n", result.Response.Status)
    }
}

sample

Pipelines

A pipeline is just another tool you can use to form an abstraction in your system.

multiply := func(values []int, multiplier int) []int {
    multipliedValues := make([]int, len(values))
    for i, v := range values {
        multipliedValues[i] = v * multiplier
    }

    return multipliedValues
}

add := func(values []int, additive int) []int {
    addedValues := make([]int, len(values))
    for i, v := range values {
        addedValues[i] = v + additive
    }

    return addedValues
}

ints := []int{1, 2, 3, 4}
for _, v := range add(multiply(ints, 2), 1) {
    fmt.Println(v)
}

sample

Fan-in and Fan-out

Fan-out is a term to describe the process of starting multiple goroutines to handle pipeline input, and fan-in is a term to describe the process of combining multiple outputs into one channel.

package main

import (
    "fmt"
)

type data int

// distribute work items to multiple uniform actors
// no data shall be processed twice!
// received wch
// response res
func worker(wch <-chan data, res chan<- data) {
    for {
        w, ok := <-wch
        if !ok {
            return // return when is closed
        }

        w *= 2
        res <- w
    }
}

func main() {
    work := []data{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

    const numWorkers = 3

    wch := make(chan data, len(work))
    res := make(chan data, len(work))

    // fan-out, one input channel for all actors
    for i := 0; i < numWorkers; i++ {
        go worker(wch, res)
    }

    // fan-out, one input channel for all actors
    for _, w := range work {
        fmt.Println("send to wch : ", w)
        wch <- w
    }
    close(wch)

    // fan-in, one result channel
    for range work {
        w := <-res
        fmt.Println("receive from res : ", w)
    }
}

sample

Or done channel

Or done is a way to encapsulate verbosity that can be achieved through for/select breaks to check when a channel has ended, and also avoiding goroutine leakage, the code below could be replaced by a closure that encapsulates that verbosity

for val := range myChan {
    // Do something with val
}

loop:
for {
    select {
    case <-done:
        break loop
    case maybeVal, ok := <-myChan:
        if ok == false {
            return // or maybe break from for
        }
        // Do something with val
    }
}

can be created an isolation, a function/method, closure, creating a single goroutine

orDone := func(done, c <-chan interface{}) <-chan interface{} {
    valStream := make(chan interface{})
    go func() {
        defer close(valStream)
        for {
            select {
            case <-done:
                return
            case v, ok := <-c:
                if ok == false {
                    return
                }
                select {
                case valStream <- v:
                case <-done:
                }
            }
        }
    }()

    return valStream
}

for val := range orDone(done, myChan) {
    // Do something with val
}

sample

Tee channel

Pass the it a channel to read from, and it will return two separate channels that will get the same value:

tee := func(done <-chan interface{}, in <-chan interface{}) (_, _ <-chan interface{}) {

    out1 := make(chan interface{})
    out2 := make(chan interface{})

    go func() {
        defer close(out1)
        defer close(out2)
        for val := range orDone(done, in) {
            var out1, out2 = out1, out2
            for i := 0; i < 2; i++ {
                select {
                case <-done:
                case out1 <- val:
                    out1 = nil
                case out2 <- val:
                    out2 = nil
                }
            }
        }
    }()

    return out1, out2
}

sample

Bridge channel

With this patterns is possible to create a function that destruct a channel of channels into a single channel

bridge := func(done <-chan interface{}, chanStream <-chan <-chan interface{}) <-chan interface{} {
    valStream := make(chan interface{})
    go func() {
        defer close(valStream)
        for {
            var stream <-chan interface{}
            select {
            case maybeStream, ok := <-chanStream:
                if ok == false {
                    return
                }
                stream = maybeStream

            case <-done:
                return
            }

            for val := range orDone(done, stream) {
                select {
                case valStream <- val:
                case <-done:
                }
            }
        }
    }()

    return valStream
}

genVals := func() <-chan <-chan interface{} {
    chanStream := make(chan (<-chan interface{}))
    go func() {
        defer close(chanStream)
        for i := 0; i < 10; i++ {
            stream := make(chan interface{}, 1)
            stream <- i
            close(stream)
            chanStream <- stream
        }
    }()

    return chanStream
}

done := make(chan interface{})
defer close(done)

for v := range bridge(done, genVals()) {
    fmt.Printf("%v ", v)
}

sample

Queuing

buffered channel is a type of queue, Adding queuing prematurely can hide synchronization issues such as deadlocks, we can use the queue to make a limit to processing, in this process when the limit <- struct{}{} is full the queue is wait to be released <-limit, if we remove them the 50 goroutines are created at the same time

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "runtime"
    "sync"
    "time"
)

func main() {
    var wg sync.WaitGroup
    limit := make(chan interface{}, runtime.NumCPU())

    fmt.Printf("Started, Limit %d\n", cap(limit))

    workers := func(l chan<- interface{}, wg *sync.WaitGroup) {
        for i := 0; i <= 50; i++ {
            i := i

            limit <- struct{}{}
            wg.Add(1)

            go func(x int, w *sync.WaitGroup) {
                defer w.Done()

                time.Sleep(1 * time.Second)
                fmt.Printf("Process %d\n", i)

                <-limit
            }(i, wg)
        }
    }

    workers(limit, &wg)
    wg.Wait()

    fmt.Println("Finished")
}

sample

Context package

in concurrent programs it’s often necessary to preempt operations because of timeouts, cancellation, or failure of another portion of the system. We’ve looked at the idiom of creating a done channel, which flows through your program and cancels all blocking concurrent operations. This works well, but it’s also somewhat limited.

It would be useful if we could communicate extra information alongside the simple notification to cancel: why the cancellation was occuring, or whether or not our function has a deadline by which it needs to complete.

see below an example to pass value into context, the context package serves two primary purposes:

  • To provide an API for canceling branches of your call-graph.
  • To provide a data-bag for transporting request-scoped data through your call-graph

package main

import (
    "context"
    "fmt"
)

func main() {
    ProcessRequest("jane", "abc123")
}

func ProcessRequest(userID, authToken string) {
    ctx := context.WithValue(context.Background(), "userID", userID)
    ctx = context.WithValue(ctx, "authToken", authToken)
    HandleResponse(ctx)
}

func HandleResponse(ctx context.Context) {
    fmt.Printf(
        "handling response for %v (%v)",
        ctx.Value("userID"),
        ctx.Value("authToken"),
    )
}

another example with Timeout, cancellation in a function has three aspects:

  • A goroutine’s parent may want to cancel it.
  • A goroutine may want to cancel its children.
  • Any blocking operations within a goroutine need to be preemptable so that it may be canceled.

The context package helps manage all three of these.

package main

import (
    "context"
    "fmt"
    "sync"
    "time"
)

func main() {
    var wg sync.WaitGroup
    ctx, cancel := context.WithCancel(context.Background())
    defer cancel()

    wg.Add(1)
    go func() {
        defer wg.Done()

        if err := printGreeting(ctx); err != nil {
            fmt.Printf("cannot print greeting: %v\n", err)
            cancel()
        }
    }()

    wg.Add(1)
    go func() {
        defer wg.Done()
        if err := printFarewell(ctx); err != nil {
            fmt.Printf("cannot print farewell: %v\n", err)
        }
    }()

    wg.Wait()
}

func printGreeting(ctx context.Context) error {
    greeting, err := genGreeting(ctx)
    if err != nil {
        return err
    }
    fmt.Printf("%s world!\n", greeting)

    return nil
}

func printFarewell(ctx context.Context) error {
    farewell, err := genFarewell(ctx)
    if err != nil {
        return err
    }
    fmt.Printf("%s world!\n", farewell)

    return nil
}

func genGreeting(ctx context.Context) (string, error) {
    ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(ctx, 1*time.Second)
    defer cancel()

    switch locale, err := locale(ctx); {
    case err != nil:
        return "", err
    case locale == "EN/US":
        return "hello", nil
    }

    return "", fmt.Errorf("unsupported locale")
}

func genFarewell(ctx context.Context) (string, error) {
    switch locale, err := locale(ctx); {
    case err != nil:
        return "", err
    case locale == "EN/US":
        return "goodbye", nil
    }

    return "", fmt.Errorf("unsupported locale")
}

func locale(ctx context.Context) (string, error) {
    if deadline, ok := ctx.Deadline(); ok {
        if deadline.Sub(time.Now().Add(1*time.Minute)) <= 0 {
            return "", context.DeadlineExceeded
        }
    }

    select {
    case <-ctx.Done():
        return "", ctx.Err()
    case <-time.After(1 * time.Minute):
    }

    return "EN/US", nil
}

sample

HeartBeats

Heartbeats are a way for concurrent processes to signal life to outside parties. They get their name from human anatomy wherein a heartbeat signifies life to an observer. Heartbeats have been around since before Go, and remain useful within it.

There are two different types of heartbeats:

  • Heartbeats that occur on a time interval.
  • Heartbeats that occur at the beginning of a unit of work

sample

Replicated Requests

You should only replicate requests like this to handlers that have different runtime conditions: different processes, machines, paths to a data store, or access to different data stores. While this can be expensive to set up and maintain, if speed is your goal this is a valuable technique. Also, this naturally provides fault tolerance and scalability.

The only caveat to this approach is that all handlers need to have equal opportunity to fulfill the request. In other words, you won’t have a chance to get the fastest time from a handler that can’t fulfill the request. As I mentioned, whatever resources the handlers are using to do their work also need to be replicated. A different symptom of the same problem is uniformity. If your handles are very similar, the chances that either one is an outlier are less.

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "math/rand"
    "sync"
    "time"
)

func main() {

    doWork := func(done <-chan interface{}, id int, wg *sync.WaitGroup, result chan<- int) {
        started := time.Now()
        defer wg.Done()

        // Simulate random load
        simulatedLoadTime := time.Duration(1+rand.Intn(5)) * time.Second
        select {
        case <-done:
        case <-time.After(simulatedLoadTime):
        }

        select {
        case <-done:
        case result <- id:
        }

        took := time.Since(started)
        // Display how long handlers would have taken
        if took < simulatedLoadTime {
            took = simulatedLoadTime

        }

        fmt.Printf("%v took %v\n", id, took)
    }

    done := make(chan interface{})
    result := make(chan int)

    var wg sync.WaitGroup
    wg.Add(10)

    // Here we start 10 handlers to handle our requests.
    for i := 0; i < 10; i++ {
        go doWork(done, i, &wg, result)
    }

    // This line grabs the first returned value from the group of handlers.
    firstReturned := <-result

    // Here we cancel all the remaining handlers.
    // This ensures they don’t continue to do unnecessary work.
    close(done)
    wg.Wait()

    fmt.Printf("Received an answer from #%v\n", firstReturned)
}

sample

Scheduler Runtime

Go will handle multiplexing goroutines onto OS threads for you.

The algorithm it uses to do this is known as a work stealing strategy.

fair scheduling. In an effort to ensure all processors were equally utilized, we could evenly distribute the load between all available processors. Imagine there are n processors and x tasks to perform. In the fair scheduling strategy, each processor would get x/n tasks:

Go models concurrency using a fork-join model.

As a refresher, remember that Go follows a fork-join model for concurrency. Forks are when goroutines are started, and join points are when two or more goroutines are synchronized through channels or types in the sync package. The work stealing algorithm follows a few basic rules. Given a thread of execution:

At a fork point, add tasks to the tail of the deque associated with the thread.

Go scheduler’s job is to distribute runnable goroutines over multiple worker OS threads that runs on one or more processors. In multi-threaded computation, two paradigms have emerged in scheduling: work sharing and work stealing.

  • Work-sharing: When a processor generates new threads, it attempts to migrate some of them to the other processors with the hopes of them being utilized by the idle/underutilized processors.
  • Work-stealing: An underutilized processor actively looks for other processor’s threads and “steal” some.

The migration of threads occurs less frequently with work stealing than with work sharing. When all processors have work to run, no threads are being migrated. And as soon as there is an idle processor, migration is considered.

Go has a work-stealing scheduler since 1.1, contributed by Dmitry Vyukov. This article will go in depth explaining what work-stealing schedulers are and how Go implements one.

Scheduling basics

Go has an M:N scheduler that can also utilize multiple processors. At any time, M goroutines need to be scheduled on N OS threads that runs on at most GOMAXPROCS numbers of processors. Go scheduler uses the following terminology for goroutines, threads and processors:

  • G: goroutine
  • M: OS thread (machine)
  • P: processor

There is a P-specific local and a global goroutine queue. Each M should be assigned to a P. Ps may have no Ms if they are blocked or in a system call. At any time, there are at most GOMAXPROCS number of P. At any time, only one M can run per P. More Ms can be created by the scheduler if required. runtime doc

Why have a scheduler?

goroutines are user-space threads conceptually similar to kernel threads managed by the OS, but managed entirely by the Go runtime

lighter-weight and cheaper than kernel threads.

  • smaller memory footprint:
    • initial goroutine stack = 2KB; default thread stack = 8KB
    • state tracking overhead
    • faster creation, destruction, context switchesL
    • goroutines switches = ~tens of ns; thread switches = ~ a us.

Go schedule put her goroutines on kernel threads which run on the CPU

References:

Go Programming Language

Go Concurrency in Go

GitHub

View Github