Overview

What is Scorecards?

We created Scorecards to give consumers of open-source projects an easy way to judge whether their dependencies are safe.

Scorecards is an automated tool that assesses a number of important heuristics (“checks”) associated with software security and assigns each check a score of 0-10. You can use these scores to understand specific areas to improve in order to strengthen the security posture of your project. You can also assess the risks that dependencies introduce, and make informed decisions about accepting these risks, evaluating alternative solutions, or working with the maintainers to make improvements.

The inspiration for Scorecards’ logo: “You passed! All D’s … and an A!”

Project Goals

  1. Automate analysis and trust decisions on the security posture of open source
    projects.

  2. Use this data to proactively improve the security posture of the critical
    projects the world depends on.

Using Scorecards

Prerequisites

Platforms: Currently, Scorecards supports OSX and Linux platforms. If you are using a Windows OS you may experience issues. Contributions towards supporting Windows are welcome.

Language: You must have GoLang installed to run Scorecards (https://golang.org/doc/install)

Authentication and Setup

Before running Scorecard, you need to either:

  • create a GitHub access token
    and set it in an environment variable called GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN,
    GITHUB_TOKEN, GH_AUTH_TOKEN or GH_TOKEN. This helps to avoid the
    GitHub’s api rate limits
    with unauthenticated requests.

# For posix platforms, e.g. linux, mac:
export GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN=<your access token>
# Multiple tokens can be provided separated by comma to be utilized
# in a round robin fashion.
export GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN=<your access token1>,<your access token2>

# For windows:
set GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN=<your access token>
set GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN=<your access token1>,<your access token2>
  • create a GitHub App Installations for higher rate-limit quotas. If you have
    an installed GitHub App and key file, you can use the three environment
    variables below, following the commands shown above for your platform.

GITHUB_APP_KEY_PATH=<path to the key file on disk>
GITHUB_APP_INSTALLATION_ID=<installation id>
GITHUB_APP_ID=<app id>

These variables can be obtained from the GitHub
developer settings page.

Basic Usage

Docker

scorecard is available as a Docker container:

The GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN has to be set to a valid token

docker run -e GITHUB_AUTH_TOKEN=token gcr.io/openssf/scorecard:stable --show-details --repo=https://github.com/ossf/scorecard

Using repository URL

Scorecards can run using just one argument, the URL of the target repo:

$ go install github.com/ossf/scorecard/[email protected]
$ scorecard --repo=github.com/ossf-tests/scorecard-check-branch-protection-e2e
Starting [CII-Best-Practices]
Starting [Fuzzing]
Starting [Pinned-Dependencies]
Starting [CI-Tests]
Starting [Maintained]
Starting [Packaging]
Starting [SAST]
Starting [Dependency-Update-Tool]
Starting [Token-Permissions]
Starting [Security-Policy]
Starting [Signed-Releases]
Starting [Binary-Artifacts]
Starting [Branch-Protection]
Starting [Code-Review]
Starting [Contributors]
Starting [Vulnerabilities]
Finished [CI-Tests]
Finished [Maintained]
Finished [Packaging]
Finished [SAST]
Finished [Signed-Releases]
Finished [Binary-Artifacts]
Finished [Branch-Protection]
Finished [Code-Review]
Finished [Contributors]
Finished [Dependency-Update-Tool]
Finished [Token-Permissions]
Finished [Security-Policy]
Finished [Vulnerabilities]
Finished [CII-Best-Practices]
Finished [Fuzzing]
Finished [Pinned-Dependencies]

RESULTS
-------
Aggregate score: 7.9 / 10

Check scores:
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|  SCORE  |          NAME          |             REASON             |                         DOCUMENTATION/REMEDIATION                         |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 10 / 10 | Binary-Artifacts       | no binaries found in the repo  | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#binary-artifacts       |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 9 / 10  | Branch-Protection      | branch protection is not       | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#branch-protection      |
|         |                        | maximal on development and all |                                                                           |
|         |                        | release branches               |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| ?       | CI-Tests               | no pull request found          | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#ci-tests               |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | CII-Best-Practices     | no badge found                 | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#cii-best-practices     |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 10 / 10 | Code-Review            | branch protection for default  | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#code-review            |
|         |                        | branch is enabled              |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | Contributors           | 0 different companies found -- | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#contributors           |
|         |                        | score normalized to 0          |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | Dependency-Update-Tool | no update tool detected        | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#dependency-update-tool |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | Fuzzing                | project is not fuzzed in       | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#fuzzing                |
|         |                        | OSS-Fuzz                       |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 1 / 10  | Maintained             | 2 commit(s) found in the last  | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#maintained             |
|         |                        | 90 days -- score normalized to |                                                                           |
|         |                        | 1                              |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| ?       | Packaging              | no published package detected  | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#packaging              |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 8 / 10  | Pinned-Dependencies    | unpinned dependencies detected | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#pinned-dependencies    |
|         |                        | -- score normalized to 8       |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | SAST                   | no SAST tool detected          | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#sast                   |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 0 / 10  | Security-Policy        | security policy file not       | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#security-policy        |
|         |                        | detected                       |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| ?       | Signed-Releases        | no releases found              | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#signed-releases        |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 10 / 10 | Token-Permissions      | tokens are read-only in GitHub | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#token-permissions      |
|         |                        | workflows                      |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 10 / 10 | Vulnerabilities        | no vulnerabilities detected    | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#vulnerabilities        |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|

Scoring

Each individual check returns a score of 0 to 10, with 10 representing the best possible score. Scorecards also produces an aggregate score, which is a weight-based average of the individual checks weighted by risk.

  • “Critical” risk checks are weighted at 10
  • “High” risk checks are weighted at 7.5
  • “Medium” risk checks are weighted at 5
  • “Low” risk checks are weighted at 2.5

Note: there are currently no Scorecards checks rated as “Critical” risk.

Tests that are rated as “High” risk are:

  • Maintained
  • Dependency-Update-Tool
  • Binary-Artifacts
  • Branch-Protection
  • Code-Review
  • Signed-Releases
  • Token-Permissions
  • Vulnerabilities

Tests that are rated as “Medium” risk are:

  • Fuzzing
  • Packaging
  • Pinned-Dependencies
  • SAST
  • Security-Policy

Tests that are rated as “Low” risk are:

  • CI-Tests
  • CII-Best-Practices
  • Contributors

Showing Detailed Results

For more details about why a check fails, use the --show-details option:

./scorecard --repo=github.com/ossf-tests/scorecard-check-branch-protection-e2e --checks Branch-Protection --show-details
Starting [Pinned-Dependencies]
Finished [Pinned-Dependencies]

RESULTS
-------
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|  SCORE  |          NAME          |             REASON             |            DETAILS             |                         DOCUMENTATION/REMEDIATION                         |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| 9 / 10  | Branch-Protection      | branch protection is not       | Info: 'force pushes' disabled  | github.comhttps://github.com/ossf/scorecard/blob/main/docs/checks.md#branch-protection      |
|         |                        | maximal on development and all | on branch 'main' Info: 'allow  |                                                                           |
|         |                        | release branches               | deletion' disabled on branch   |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | 'main' Info: linear history    |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | enabled on branch 'main' Info: |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | strict status check enabled    |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | on branch 'main' Warn: status  |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | checks for merging have no     |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | specific status to check on    |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | branch 'main' Info: number     |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | of required reviewers is 2     |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | on branch 'main' Info: Stale   |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | review dismissal enabled on    |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | branch 'main' Info: Owner      |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | review required on branch      |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | 'main' Info: 'admininistrator' |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | PRs need reviews before being  |                                                                           |
|         |                        |                                | merged on branch 'main'        |                                                                           |
|---------|------------------------|--------------------------------|--------------------------------|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|

Using a Package manager

For projects in the --npm, --pypi, or --rubygems ecosystems, you have the option to run Scorecards using a package manager. Provide the package name to run the checks on the corresponding GitHub source code.

For example, --npm=angular.

Running specific checks

To run only specific check(s), add the --checks argument with a list of check
names.

For example, --checks=CI-Tests,Code-Review.

Formatting Results

There are three formats currently: default, json, and csv. Others may be
added in the future.

These may be specified with the --format flag. For example, --format=json.

Report Problems

If you have what looks like a bug, please use the
Github issue tracking system.
Before you file an issue, please search existing issues to see if your issue
is already covered.

Public Data

If you’re interested in seeing a list of projects with their Scorecard
check results, we publish these results in a
BigQuery public dataset.

This data is available in the public BigQuery dataset
openssf:scorecardcron.scorecard. The latest results are available in the
BigQuery view openssf:scorecardcron.scorecard_latest.

You can extract the latest results to Google Cloud storage in JSON format using
the bq tool:

# Get the latest PARTITION_ID
bq query --nouse_legacy_sql 'SELECT partition_id FROM
openssf.scorecardcron.INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PARTITIONS WHERE table_name="scorecard"
ORDER BY partition_id DESC
LIMIT 1'

# Extract to GCS
bq extract --destination_format=NEWLINE_DELIMITED_JSON
'openssf:scorecardcron.scorecard$<partition_id>' gs://bucket-name/filename.json

The list of projects that are checked is available in the
cron/data/projects.csv
file in this repository. If you would like us to track more, please feel free to
send a Pull Request with others. Currently, this list is derived from projects hosted on GitHub
ONLY
. We do plan to expand them in near future to account for projects hosted
on other source control systems.

NOTE: The public dataset uses a Pass/Fail scoring system with a confidence score
between 0 and 10. A confidence of 0 indicates that the check was unable to
achieve any real signal, and that the result should be ignored. A confidence of 10
indicates the check was completely sure of the result.

Checks

Scorecard Checks

The following checks are all run against the target project by default:

Name Description
Binary-Artifacts Is the project free of checked-in binaries?
Branch-Protection Does the project use Branch Protection ?
CI-Tests Does the project run tests in CI, e.g. GitHub Actions, Prow?
CII-Best-Practices Does the project have a CII Best Practices Badge?
Code-Review Does the project require code review before code is merged?
Contributors Does the project have contributors from at least two different organizations?
Dependency-Update-Tool Does the project use tools to help update its dependencies?
Fuzzing Does the project use fuzzing tools, e.g. OSS-Fuzz?
Maintained Is the project maintained?
Pinned-Dependencies Does the project declare and pin dependencies?
Packaging Does the project build and publish official packages from CI/CD, e.g. GitHub Publishing ?
SAST Does the project use static code analysis tools, e.g. CodeQL, SonarCloud?
Security-Policy Does the project contain a security policy?
Signed-Releases Does the project cryptographically sign releases?
Token-Permissions Does the project declare GitHub workflow tokens as read only?
Vulnerabilities Does the project have unfixed vulnerabilities? Uses the OSV service.

Detailed Checks Documentation

To see detailed information about each check, its scoring criteria, and remediation steps, check out
the checks documentation page.

Contribute

Code of Conduct

Before contributing, please follow our Code of Conduct.

Contribute to Scorecards

See the Contributing documentation for guidance on how to
contribute to the project.

Adding a Scorecard Check

If you’d like to add a check, please see guidance here.

Connect with the Scorecards Community

If you want to get involved in the Scorecards community or have ideas you’d like to chat about, we discuss
this project in the
OSSF Best Practices Working Group
meetings.

See the
Community Calendar
for the schedule and meeting invitations. The meetings happen biweekly
https://calendar.google.com/calendar/embed?src=s63voefhp5i9pfltb5q67ngpes%40group.calendar.google.com&ctz=America%2FLos_Angeles

For realtime discussion, you can join the
#security_scorecards slack
channel. Slack requires registration, but the openssf team is open
invitation to anyone to register here. Feel free to come and ask any
questions.

Report a Security Issue

To report a security issue, please follow instructions here.

GitHub

https://github.com/ossf/scorecard